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Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, trigger bioluminescence in dinoflagellates, enable calcification in coccolithophores, and play multifarious roles in human health. Because the proton concentration is minuscule, exquisite selectivity for protons over other ions is critical to HV1 function. The selectivity of the open HV1 channel requires an aspartate near(More)
The role of the second shell in the process of metal binding and selectivity in metalloproteins has been elucidated by combining Protein Data Bank (PDB) surveys of Mg, Mn, Ca, and Zn binding sites with density functional theory/continuum dielectric methods (DFT/CDM). Peptide backbone groups were found to be the most common second-shell ligand in Mg, Mn, Ca,(More)
This review highlights insights gained from computational studies on protein-metal recognition. We systematically dissect the various factors governing metal binding affinity and selectivity in proteins starting from (a) the intrinsic properties of the metal and neighboring metal cations (if present), to (b) the primary coordination sphere, (c) the second(More)
Lithium is used (in the form of soluble salts) to treat bipolar disorder and has been considered as a possible drug in treating chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. One of the proposed mechanisms of Li(+) action involves a competition between the alien Li(+) and native Mg(2+) for metal-binding sites(More)
Ion channels, specialized pore-forming proteins, are an indispensable component of the nervous system and play a crucial role in regulating cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle contraction. Potassium ion channels, controlling the action potential of a number of excitable cells, are characterized by a remarkable ability to select K(+) over Na(+). Although(More)
Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the(More)
Structural and thermodynamic aspects of alkaline earth metal dication (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+)) binding to E. coli ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) have been investigated using both experimental and theoretical methods. The various metal-binding modes of the enzyme were explored using classical molecular dynamics simulations, and relative binding free(More)
Because voltage-gated ion channels play critical biological roles, understanding how they can discriminate the native metal ion from rival cations in the milieu is of great interest. Although Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) are present in comparable concentrations outside the cell, the factors governing the competition among these cations for the selectivity(More)