Todd Pietila

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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology aiding diagnostics, education, and interventional, and surgical planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Three-dimensional printing has been derived from computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and 3D echocardiography. However, individually the imaging modalities may not provide adequate(More)
Three-dimensional printing technology has significant clinical implications for the management of congenital heart disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been established as imaging tools for the creation of physical three-dimensional models. The potential use of non-invasive bedside imaging techniques such as three-dimensional(More)
Background Congenital heart defects affect 8 out of every 1,000 newborns. Although many do not require immediate treatment, most cases will require a surgical or catheter based intervention during their lifetime. Complex cases can involve multiple anomalies. These unique and complex procedures require comprehensive pre-intervention or surgical planning. A(More)
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