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Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread(More)
Mycobacterium avium grew in media at 14-37 degrees C, and persisted at 4 degrees C and 42 degrees C. The bacteria lost approximately 90% viability after 3 months in reverse-osmosis deionized water at 4-37 degrees C. Cooler temperatures lowered the death rate. Death rates also decreased after a 5- to 10-day starvation adaptation period. Alterations of the(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 3 million people per year. Other mycobacterial species, especially Mycobacterium avium, are emerging pathogens in the immunocompromised population, most notably AIDS patients. These nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment, and naturally resistant to(More)
A 96-well fluorescence-based assay has been developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic and bacteriocidal compounds. The assay is based on detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in HeLa human carcinoma cells as well as gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive bacteria (Mycobacterium avium). Addition of a toxic compound to the(More)
Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) exhibit a highly effective and biphasic response to starvation, losing less than 90% viability after 2 years in deionized water. During the first adaptive phase of 4-7 days, the bacilli exhibit a burst of lipid catabolism, alteration of mycolate modifications, loss of catalase and urease activities, and a(More)
This is the first study to characterize the environmental conditions which contribute to the presence and proliferation of environmental mycobacteria in a major freshwater river. Over 20 different species of environmental mycobacteria were isolated, including the pathogenic M. avium and M. kansasii. Species of the rapidly growing M. fortuitum complex were(More)
AIMS Mycobacteria are a serious cause of infections in humans, with limited treatment options, as no new antibiotics have been developed against mycobacteria since the 1960s. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of a small library of acetophenone (AP) compounds was analysed. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty-three AP derivatives were examined for(More)
Mycobacteria, especially M. tuberculosis, have remained a worldwide dominant cause for human morbidity (~10 million annual cases) and mortality (3 million deaths annually) since ancient times. An estimated one-third of living humans are latently infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite this, there have been no new drugs specifically developed against(More)
Acetophenones were screened for activity against positive phototaxis of Chlamydomonas cells, a process that requires co-ordinated flagellar motility. The structure-activity relationships of a series of acetophenones are reported, including acetophenones that affect flagellar motility and cell viability. Notably, 4-methoxyacetophenone,(More)
The commonality of antibiotic usage in medicine means that understanding the resulting consequences to the host is vital. Antibiotics often decrease host microbiome community diversity and alter the microbial community composition. Many diseases such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic disorders have been linked(More)