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Macrophages exert divergent effects in the injured CNS, causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration. The mechanisms regulating these divergent functions are not understood but can be attributed to the recruitment of distinct macrophage subsets and the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we show that impaired signaling via the(More)
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotent cytokine that is associated with clinical worsening and relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The mechanism through which MIF promotes MS progression remains undefined. In this study, we identify a critical role for MIF in regulating CNS effector mechanisms necessary for the development(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The role of MIF in the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was explored using MIF-/- mice. Wild-type mice showed a progressive disease course, whereas MIF-/- mice exhibited acute signs but no further(More)
Women with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience a decrease in relapse rate during pregnancy, most notably during the third trimester, with a flare of disease activity 3-6 mo postpartum. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have shown that pregnancy delays the onset and decreases the incidence of disease. We(More)
Mice are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when fed myelin basic protein (MBP). Thymectomized mice do not exhibit oral tolerance. We found evidence for two mechanisms to explain the role of the thymus in oral tolerance: a site for deletion of autoreactive T cells and a source of regulatory T cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS mediated by CD4(+) T cells directed against myelin antigens. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is induced by immunization with myelin antigens like myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We have explored the transfer of EAE using MOG(35-55)-specific TCR transgenic (2D2) T cells.(More)
Soluble CD23 plays a role in the positive regulation of an IgE response. Engagement of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on a B cell is known to enhance the level of both soluble CD23 and IgE, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. In this study, we report that, in comparison with a CD40 ligand/IL-4-primed murine B cell(More)
CXCR3, expressed mainly on activated T and NK cells, is implicated in a host of immunological conditions and can contribute either to disease resolution or pathology. We report the generation and characterization of a novel CXCR3 internal ribosome entry site bicistronic enhanced GFP reporter (CIBER) mouse in which enhanced GFP expression correlates with(More)
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious(More)
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