Todd M Shawler

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Macrophages exert divergent effects in the injured CNS, causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration. The mechanisms regulating these divergent functions are not understood but can be attributed to the recruitment of distinct macrophage subsets and the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we show that impaired signaling via the(More)
Chronic inflammation contributes to numerous diseases, and regulation of inflammation is crucial for disease control and resolution. Sex hormones have potent immunoregulatory abilities. Specifically, estrogen influences immune cells and inflammation, which contributes to the sexual dimorphism of autoimmunity and protection against disease seen during(More)
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and axon loss. The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients during relapses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new(More)
Soluble CD23 plays a role in the positive regulation of an IgE response. Engagement of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on a B cell is known to enhance the level of both soluble CD23 and IgE, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. In this study, we report that, in comparison with a CD40 ligand/IL-4-primed murine B cell(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) bridge the innate and adaptive immune response, are uniquely capable of priming naïve T cells, and play a critical role in the initiation and regulation of autoimmune and immune-mediated disease. At present, in vivo expansion of DC populations is accomplished primarily through the administration of the recombinant human growth factor(More)
Long-term IS in transplant patients has significant morbidity, poorer quality of life, and substantial economic costs. TOL, defined as graft acceptance without functional impairment in the absence of IS, has been achieved in some pediatric LT recipients. Using mass cytometry, peripheral blood immunotyping was performed to characterize differences between(More)
The oral administration of myelin proteins has been used for the successful prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We questioned whether the thymus was involved in oral tolerance. In this study, euthymic myelin basic protein (MBP) TCR transgenic mice are protected from EAE when fed MBP but are not protected when(More)
CXCR3, expressed mainly on activated T and NK cells, is implicated in a host of immunological conditions and can contribute either to disease resolution or pathology. We report the generation and characterization of a novel CXCR3 internal ribosome entry site bicistronic enhanced GFP reporter (CIBER) mouse in which enhanced GFP expression correlates with(More)