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Macrophages exert divergent effects in the injured CNS, causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration. The mechanisms regulating these divergent functions are not understood but can be attributed to the recruitment of distinct macrophage subsets and the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we show that impaired signaling via the(More)
Chronic inflammation contributes to numerous diseases, and regulation of inflammation is crucial for disease control and resolution. Sex hormones have potent immunoregulatory abilities. Specifically, estrogen influences immune cells and inflammation, which contributes to the sexual dimorphism of autoimmunity and protection against disease seen during(More)
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotent cytokine that is associated with clinical worsening and relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The mechanism through which MIF promotes MS progression remains undefined. In this study, we identify a critical role for MIF in regulating CNS effector mechanisms necessary for the development(More)
Expression of MCP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with various neuroinflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we found that MCP-1 was decreased in the CNS but increased in the gut following oral administration of myelin basic protein (MBP) correlating with(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and axon loss. The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients during relapses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new(More)
Mice are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when fed myelin basic protein (MBP). Thymectomized mice do not exhibit oral tolerance. We found evidence for two mechanisms to explain the role of the thymus in oral tolerance: a site for deletion of autoreactive T cells and a source of regulatory T cells.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The role of MIF in the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was explored using MIF-/- mice. Wild-type mice showed a progressive disease course, whereas MIF-/- mice exhibited acute signs but no further(More)
Women with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience a decrease in relapse rate during pregnancy, most notably during the third trimester, with a flare of disease activity 3-6 mo postpartum. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have shown that pregnancy delays the onset and decreases the incidence of disease. We(More)
The oral administration of myelin proteins has been used for the successful prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We questioned whether the thymus was involved in oral tolerance. In this study, euthymic myelin basic protein (MBP) TCR transgenic mice are protected from EAE when fed MBP but are not protected when(More)