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Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds increase ventricular afterload. RV dysfunction is defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. RV hypertrophy seems to be a common complication of chronic and advanced lung disease. RV(More)
Several tumor suppressor genes have been shown to regulate cellular susceptibility to proliferation or apoptotic cell death. An essential first step in studies with the long-range goal of determining the effect of a tumor suppressor gene on cellular susceptibility to apoptosis is careful characterization of the cell's response to an apoptotic stimulus. The(More)
Loss of tumor suppressor function dramatically alters the cellular response to chemicals. The phorbol ester tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), stimulates cell proliferation through rapid activation of protein kinase C (PKC), followed by gradual degradation of the kinase. TPA also activates the GTPase Rap1 in some cell types. The(More)
Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to(More)
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading cause of emphysema. CS mediates pathologic emphysematous remodeling of the lung via apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells resulting in enlargement of the airspaces, loss of the capillary bed, and diminished surface area for gas exchange. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, is(More)
Although the precise role for the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene (Tsc2) in tumor suppression is not clear, many studies have implicated Tsc2 in the regulation of cell differentiation, cell cycle control, GTPase activity, transcription, polycystin-1 localization, and translation initiation. We propose that Tsc2 also increases(More)
Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including emphysema. CS exposure impacts all cell types within the airways and lung parenchyma, causing alveolar tissue destruction through four mechanisms: (1) oxidative stress; (2) inflammation; (3) protease-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix; and(More)
BACKGROUND Although the transpulmonary gradient (TPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) are commonly used to differentiate heart failure patients with pulmonary vascular disease from those with passive pulmonary hypertension (PH), elevations in TPG and PVR may not always reflect pre-capillary PH. Recently, it has been suggested an elevated diastolic(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a medically incurable disease resulting in death from right ventricular (RV) failure. Both pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling are linked to dynamic changes in the microvasculature. Therefore, we hypothesized that circulating angiostatic factors could be linked to outcomes and represent novel biomarkers of(More)