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Practical and theoretical issues are discussed for testing (a) the comparability, or measurement equivalence, of psychological constructs and (b) detecting possible sociocultural difference on the constructs in cross-cultural research designs. Specifically, strong factorial invariance (Meredith, 1993) of each variable's loading and intercept (mean-level)(More)
We examine the controversial practice of using parcels of items as manifest variables in structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures. After detailing arguments pro and con, we conclude that the unconsidered use of parcels is never warranted, while, at the same time, the considered use of parcels cannot be dismissed out of hand. In large part, the decision(More)
This meta-analytic review of 148 studies on child and adolescent direct and indirect aggression examined the magnitude of gender differences, intercorrelations between forms, and associations with maladjustment. Results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring boys) in direct aggression and trivial gender differences in indirect aggression.(More)
In this paper the refinement and psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) are described. Results from a sociodemographically diverse birth cohort sample of 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 12 and 36 months are presented. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized Internalizing,(More)
Examined the relations between depressive symptoms and (a) 3 standard indicators of religiousness and (b) a potentially more age-specific indicator in a sample of 744 adolescents (M age = 13.06 years, SD = 0.45). Adolescents completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. Results(More)
Software development project schedule estimation has long been a difficult problem. The Standish CHAOS Report indicates that only 20 percent of projects finish on time relative to their original plan. Conventional wisdom proposes that estimation gets better as a project progresses. This concept is sometimes called the cone of uncertainty, a term popularized(More)
Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer(More)
The use of item parcels has been a matter of debate since the earliest use of factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Here, we review the arguments that have been levied both for and against the use of parcels and discuss the relevance of these arguments in light of the building body of empirical evidence investigating their performance. We(More)