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PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many cellular functions due to their ability to target mRNAs for degradation or translational inhibition. Previous studies have reported that the expression of microRNA-9 (miR-9) is regulated by retinoic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have previously shown that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide(More)
PURPOSE The inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The microRNAs miR-146a and miR-146b-5p can regulate the inflammatory process by attenuating cytokine signaling via the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of(More)
Even after over 150 years of discussion, the interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics continues to be a source of confusion and controversy in physics. This confusion has been accentuated by recent challenges to the second law and by the difficulty in many cases of clarifying which formulation is threatened and how serious the implications of a(More)
ARPE-19, a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, has been widely used in studies of RPE function as well as gene expression. Here, we report the novel finding that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), a synthetic retinoic acid derivative and a potential chemopreventive agent against cancer, induced the differentiation of ARPE-19 cells(More)
PURPOSE The rd12 mouse was reported as a recessively inherited Rpe65 mutation. We asked if the rd12 mutation resides in Rpe65 and how the mutation manifests itself. METHODS A complementation test was performed by mating Rpe65(KO) (KO/KO) and rd12 mice together to determine if the rd12 mutation is in the Rpe65 gene. Visual function of wild-type (+/+),(More)
PURPOSE A mouse mutation, tvrm148, was previously reported as resulting in retinal degeneration. Tvrm148 and Rpe65 map between markers D3Mit147 and D3Mit19 on a genetic map, but the physical map places RPE65 outside the markers. We asked if Rpe65 or perhaps another nearby gene is mutated and if the mutant reduced 11-cis-retinal levels. We studied the impact(More)
PURPOSE Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors(More)
Human RPE65 mutations cause a spectrum of blinding retinal dystrophies from severe early-onset disease to milder manifestations. The RPE65 P25L missense mutation, though having <10% of wild-type (WT) activity, causes relatively mild retinal degeneration. To better understand these mild forms of RPE65-related retinal degeneration, and their effect on cone(More)
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