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PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many cellular functions due to their ability to target mRNAs for degradation or translational inhibition. Previous studies have reported that the expression of microRNA-9 (miR-9) is regulated by retinoic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have previously shown that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide(More)
PURPOSE The inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The microRNAs miR-146a and miR-146b-5p can regulate the inflammatory process by attenuating cytokine signaling via the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of(More)
Ambient light appears to play a role in regulating gene and protein expression of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a protein that facilitates the transport of retinoids between the neural retina and pigment epithelium in the visual cycle. Pregnant CD-1 mice were placed in the dark approximately 48 hr before parturition, and the pups were(More)
Results obtained in a previous study showed that, compared with a normal eyecup preparation, the amount of rhodopsin regenerated and the rate at which it was resynthesized after bleaching were reduced by about 50% when the skate retina was detached from its pigment epithelium (RPE) and replaced immediately on the apical surface of the RPE (Sun and Ripps,(More)
Even after over 150 years of discussion, the interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics continues to be a source of confusion and controversy in physics. This confusion has been accentuated by recent challenges to the second law and by the difficulty in many cases of clarifying which formulation is threatened and how serious the implications of a(More)
ARPE-19, a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, has been widely used in studies of RPE function as well as gene expression. Here, we report the novel finding that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), a synthetic retinoic acid derivative and a potential chemopreventive agent against cancer, induced the differentiation of ARPE-19 cells(More)
PURPOSE The rd12 mouse was reported as a recessively inherited Rpe65 mutation. We asked if the rd12 mutation resides in Rpe65 and how the mutation manifests itself. METHODS A complementation test was performed by mating Rpe65(KO) (KO/KO) and rd12 mice together to determine if the rd12 mutation is in the Rpe65 gene. Visual function of wild-type (+/+),(More)
PURPOSE A mouse mutation, tvrm148, was previously reported as resulting in retinal degeneration. Tvrm148 and Rpe65 map between markers D3Mit147 and D3Mit19 on a genetic map, but the physical map places RPE65 outside the markers. We asked if Rpe65 or perhaps another nearby gene is mutated and if the mutant reduced 11-cis-retinal levels. We studied the impact(More)
PURPOSE The RPE cell line ARPE-19 provides a dependable and widely used alternative to native RPE. However, replication of the native RPE phenotype becomes more difficult because these cells lose their specialized phenotype after multiple passages. Compounding this problem is the widespread use of ARPE-19 cells in an undifferentiated state to attempt to(More)
Claims of exceptions to the second law of thermodynamics are generally met with extreme skepticism that is quite reasonable given the great confidence placed in the second law. But what specifically is the basis for that confidence? The perspective from which we approach experimental or theoretical results that call into question the absolute status of the(More)