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We have identified from mouse the first mammalian beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (beta-CD), a crucial enzyme in development and metabolism that governs the de novo entry of vitamin A from plant-derived precursors. beta-CD is related to the retinal pigment epithelium-expressed protein RPE65 and belongs to a diverse family that includes the plant(More)
PURPOSE The inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The microRNAs miR-146a and miR-146b-5p can regulate the inflammatory process by attenuating cytokine signaling via the nuclear factor-κB pathway. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of(More)
Activins, a subgroup of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, have been extensively studied in vertebrates for their roles in growth and development. However, activins are not thought to be expressed in invertebrates. The identification of the first invertebrate activin gene is reported here. A genomic clone representing 102 F region(More)
PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many cellular functions due to their ability to target mRNAs for degradation or translational inhibition. Previous studies have reported that the expression of microRNA-9 (miR-9) is regulated by retinoic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have previously shown that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide(More)
In the search for a possible Drosophila melanogaster homolog of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a approximately 140-kDa retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein found in vertebrates, the 110,000 g supernatant fraction prepared from homogenates of fly heads was analyzed for the presence of proteins capable of binding radiolabeled(More)
Transgenic rats with the P23H mutation in rhodopsin exhibit increased susceptibility to light damage, compared with normal animals. It is known that light-induced retinal damage requires repetitive bleaching of rhodopsin and that photoreceptor cell loss is by apoptosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) leading to photoreceptor cell death are(More)
A detailed understanding of the mechanism of lipid transport in insects has been hampered by the inability to identify the proapolipophorin gene that encodes apolipophorins I and II, the principal protein components of lipophorin, the lipid transport vehicle. Here we provide the first molecular description of the Drosophila gene encoding a retinoid- and(More)
We have characterized NORPEG, a novel gene from human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), in which its expression is induced by all-trans-retinoic acid. Two transcripts ( approximately 3 and approximately 5 kilobases in size) have been detected for this gene, which is localized to chromosome band 5p13.2-13.3. Placenta and testis showed the highest(More)
Retinyl esters play an important role in the visual cycle because they are involved in regeneration of 11-cis-retinal for use in rhodopsin formation. In the present study, retinyl ester concentrations were significantly elevated in eyes and livers of mice homozygous for the vitiligo mutation (mivit/mivit). Vitiligo mice demonstrate a slowly progressing(More)