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BACKGROUND CT imaging of head-injured children has risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim was to identify children at very low risk of clinically-important traumatic brain injuries (ciTBI) for whom CT might be unnecessary. METHODS We enrolled patients younger than 18 years presenting within 24 h of head trauma with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of(More)
OBJECTIVE Children with minor head trauma frequently present to emergency departments (EDs). Identifying those with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can be difficult, and it is unknown whether clinical prediction rules outperform clinician suspicion. Our primary objective was to compare the test characteristics of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied(More)
Five cases of subdural empyema are described. Two of the cases eluded a definitive computed tomography (CT) diagnosis despite classical clinical background. Extracerebral collection with definitive border enhancement was seen in the other three cases. Mass effect, present in all five cases, was related to the extracerebral collection in three cases and(More)
Animals exposed to brief periods of moderate hypoxia (8% to 10% oxygen for 3 hours) are protected against cerebral and cardiac ischemia between 1 and 2 days later. This hypoxia preconditioning requires new RNA and protein synthesis. The mechanism of this hypoxia-induced tolerance correlates with the induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a prototype artificial intelligence system can identify volume of hemorrhage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. DESIGN Prospective in vivo animal model of hemorrhagic shock. SETTING Research foundation animal surgical suite; computer laboratories of collaborating industry partner. SUBJECTS Nineteen,(More)
Although the emergency physician often treats patients with multiple injuries, there are relatively few clinically relevant models that mimic these situations. To describe the changes after a hemorrhagic insult superimposed on traumatic brain injury (TBI), anesthetized and ventilated juvenile pigs were assigned to 35% hemorrhage (35H), TBI (via fluid(More)
Carbon dioxide is perhaps the most potent available modulator of cerebrovascular tone and thus cerebral blood flow (CBF). These experiments evaluate the impact of induced hypercarbia on the matching of blood flow and metabolism in the injured brain. We explore the hypothesis that hypercarbia will restore the relationship of CBF to metabolic demand,(More)