Todd F. Duffield

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The objectives of this study were to validate diagnostic criteria for clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows and to measure the impact of endometritis on reproductive performance. Data were collected from 1865 cows in 27 herds, including history of dystocia, twins, retained placenta, or metritis. All cows were examined once between 20 and 33 d in(More)
The objectives of the study were to validate the use of endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) to diagnose subclinical endometritis in clinically normal postpartum dairy cows, and to measure the impact of subclinical endometritis on reproductive performance. Holstein cows from two dairy farms were examined at Visit 1 (V1) at 20-33 days in milk(More)
Data from 1,010 lactating lactating, predominately component-fed Holstein cattle from 25 predominately tie-stall dairy farms in southwest Ontario were used to identify objective thresholds for defining hyperketonemia in lactating dairy cattle based on negative impacts on cow health, milk production, or both. Serum samples obtained during wk 1 and 2(More)
The objective of this field study was to identify metabolic tests available in clinical practice that identified cows at increased risk of left displaced abomasum (LDA). A technician visited 1044 cows in 20 herds weekly from 1 wk before expected calving until 1 wk postpartum. Cows were assigned a body condition score and samples were collected at each visit(More)
Subclinical ketosis is an important and common condition of early-lactation dairy cattle. It is associated with losses in milk production and increased risk of periparturient disease. Prevention depends on several factors, including proper transition-cow nutrition, management of body condition, and the use of certain feed additives such as niacin, propylene(More)
Subacute rumen acidosis is thought to be a common condition in early lactating dairy cattle; however, diagnosis is difficult. There are currently only two techniques available for measuring rumen pH under field conditions: rumenocentesis and oral stomach tube. Sixteen rumen-fistulated cows were sampled in four sites of the rumen (cranial-ventral,(More)
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of a subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) model on diet choice in dairy cows. In the first experiment, 25% of the ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) of the total mixed ration (TMR) was replaced with wheat-barley pellets (WBP, 50% ground wheat, 50% ground barley). Rumen pH was measured continuously via(More)
A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on metabolism of dairy cattle was conducted following a search of the literature. A total of 59 studies with monensin feeding in dairy cattle were identified in which 30 papers and 45 trials contained metabolic data. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) data were obtained from over 4,000 cows and 115 trial sites. Data(More)
We investigated Clostridium difficile in calves and the similarity between bovine and human C. difficile PCR ribotypes by conducting a case-control study of calves from 102 dairy farms in Canada. Fecal samples from 144 calves with diarrhea and 134 control calves were cultured for C. difficile and tested with an ELISA for C. difficile toxins A and B. C.(More)
Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When(More)