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Since its identification in April 2009, an A(H1N1) virus containing a unique combination of gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine lineages has continued to circulate in humans. The lack of similarity between the 2009 A(H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended(More)
The segmented structure of the influenza virus genome plays a pivotal role in its adaptation to new hosts and the emergence of pandemics. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, little is known about the biological properties of H5N1 viruses that may emerge following reassortment with contemporary(More)
Phylogenetic evidence suggests that endemic and epidemic dengue viruses (DENV), transmitted among humans by the anthropophilic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, emerged when ancestral, sylvatic DENV transmitted among nonhuman primates by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes adapted to these peridomestic vectors. We tested this hypothesis by retrospectively(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus pose a threat of eventually causing a pandemic. Early vaccination of the population would be the single most effective measure for the control of an emerging influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in insect cell-culture(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1(More)
The complete genome sequence of a Mexican West Nile virus isolate, TM171-03, included 46 nucleotide (0.42%) and 4 amino acid (0.11%) differences from the NY99 prototype. Mouse virulence differences between plaque-purified variants of TM171-03 with mutations at the E protein glycosylation motif suggest the emergence of an attenuating mutation.
Complete genome sequencing of 22 West Nile virus isolates suggested 2 independent introductions into Mexico. A previously identified mouse-attenuated glycosylation variant was introduced into southern Mexico through the southeastern United States, while a common US genotype appears to have been introduced incrementally into northern Mexico through the(More)
Analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of 22 West Nile virus (WNV) isolates collected during the summer and fall of 2001 and 2002 indicated genetic variation among strains circulating in geographically distinct regions of the United States and continued divergence from isolates collected in the northeastern United States during 1999 and 2000. Sequence(More)