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Fluid percussion injury (FPI) is a well-characterized experimental model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the rat. Many pathophysiologic consequences and mechanisms of recovery after TBI rely on neurochemical pathways that can be examined in genetically altered mice. Therefore, FPI applied to mice may be a useful experimental tool to investigate TBI at(More)
The authors review and compare posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A review of the literature is performed wherein the history, indications for surgery, surgical procedures with their respective biomechanical advantages, potential complications, and grafting substances are presented. Along with the(More)
BACKGROUND Various allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials are used in neurosurgery to repair dural defects when primary suture closure is impossible and autologous grafts are inadequate or inaccessible. When used in contaminated or infected wounds, however, nonautologous grafts promote chronic colonization and recurring infection. Recently, several(More)
Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by a proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. Intracranial inflammatory pseudotumors classically involve the cavernous sinus but can also occur in the supratentorial or infratentorial compartments and spinal canal. Symptoms are dependent on(More)
Injuries of the cervical spine are relatively rare in children but are a distinct clinical entity compared with those found in adults. The unique biomechanics of the pediatric cervical spine lead to a different distribution of injuries and distinct radiographic features. Children younger than 9 years of age usually have upper cervical injuries, whereas(More)
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a congenital neurocutaneous syndrome (or phacomatosis) characterized by widespread development of hamartomas in multiple organs. For affected individuals, neurological and psychiatric complications are the most disabling and lethal features. Although the clinical phenotype of TS is complex, only three lesions characterize the(More)
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have become common surgical techniques for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty involves the percutaneous injection of bone cement into the cancellous bone of a vertebral body with the goals of pain alleviation and preventing further loss of vertebral body height. Kyphoplasty utilizes an inflatable(More)
BACKGROUND Choroid plexus papillomas are typically considered benign lesions, but histology is not always predictive of their behavior. These tumors can metastasize anywhere along the neuraxis and may be intraventricular, subarachnoid, or intraparenchymal. We present 2 cases that illustrate the wide diversity with which choroid plexus papillomas can(More)
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare neurometabolic disorder with characteristic neuroimaging and clinicopathological features. The authors describe a case of GA1 in a 7-month-old girl presenting with macrocephaly and bilateral subdural hematomas (SDHs) who was initially evaluated for nonaccidental trauma (NAT). Bilateral subdural drains were placed(More)