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Fluid percussion injury (FPI) is a well-characterized experimental model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the rat. Many pathophysiologic consequences and mechanisms of recovery after TBI rely on neurochemical pathways that can be examined in genetically altered mice. Therefore, FPI applied to mice may be a useful experimental tool to investigate TBI at(More)
The authors review and compare posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A review of the literature is performed wherein the history, indications for surgery, surgical procedures with their respective biomechanical advantages, potential complications, and grafting substances are presented. Along with the(More)
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a congenital neurocutaneous syndrome (or phacomatosis) characterized by widespread development of hamartomas in multiple organs. For affected individuals, neurological and psychiatric complications are the most disabling and lethal features. Although the clinical phenotype of TS is complex, only three lesions characterize the(More)
Injuries of the cervical spine are relatively rare in children but are a distinct clinical entity compared with those found in adults. The unique biomechanics of the pediatric cervical spine lead to a different distribution of injuries and distinct radiographic features. Children younger than 9 years of age usually have upper cervical injuries, whereas(More)
Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by a proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. Intracranial inflammatory pseudotumors classically involve the cavernous sinus but can also occur in the supratentorial or infratentorial compartments and spinal canal. Symptoms are dependent on(More)
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have become common surgical techniques for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty involves the percutaneous injection of bone cement into the cancellous bone of a vertebral body with the goals of pain alleviation and preventing further loss of vertebral body height. Kyphoplasty utilizes an inflatable(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration into brain parenchyma, mediating various cytodestructive mechanisms. We examined the effect of blocking leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the anatomic and behavioral sequelae in lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb)(More)
OBJECT Odontoid synchondrosis fractures, although rare in the overall incidence of spinal trauma, are one of the more common fractures in young children. The goal of this study was to evaluate the demographic data, incidence of neurological deficits, treatment strategies, and outcomes in a combined series of odontoid synchondrosis fractures treated at the(More)
Surgical management of peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes is usually successful, but the recurrence of symptoms after initial improvement can and does occur. Extraneural fibrosis is one possible cause of recurrent peripheral nerve problems as a result of nerve compression or tethering. Several approaches to prevent extraneural scarring after surgery have(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether increasing the volume drained from chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs) via either twist drill drainage (TDD) or burr hole drainage (BHD) followed by instillation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is more efficacious than simple drainage alone. METHODS Patients admitted over the course of 42 months (2007-2010) to a single(More)