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Endothelial function is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart failure. In the 1990s, high-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery to assess endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was developed. The technique provokes the release of nitric oxide, resulting in(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with established cardiovascular disease, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with statin therapy. It is unclear whether extended-release niacin added to simvastatin to raise low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is superior to(More)
OBJECTIVES The relation between endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in the brachial and coronary arteries was determined in the same subjects. BACKGROUND Coronary artery endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of overt atherosclerosis and is important in its pathogenesis. A noninvasive assessment of endothelial function in a peripheral(More)
The present article represents the 2009 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult.
Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibition of the acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) enzyme may prevent excess accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages. The ACAT inhibitor avasimibe was shown to reduce experimental atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of avasimibe on human coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
CONTEXT The evidence that measurement of the common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) improves the risk scores in prediction of the absolute risk of cardiovascular events is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To determine whether common CIMT has added value in 10-year risk prediction of first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes, above that of the Framingham(More)
1. Endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of vascular tone in small mesenteric arteries (SMA) from control (db/db +/?) and diabetic (db/db -/-) mice was compared. 2. Phenylephrine-induced maximum contraction, but not sensitivity, of SMA in db/db -/- compared to db/db +/? was enhanced. 3. Acetylcholine (ACh), but not sodium nitroprusside (SNP),(More)
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A). This enzymatic defect results in the accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3); also referred to as ceramidetrihexoside) throughout the body. To investigate the effects of purified alpha-gal A, 10(More)
Although endothelium-derived nitric oxide contributes to basal vascular tone, little is known about its role in regulating blood flow during changes in metabolic supply and demand. We examined the contribution of endothelium-derived nitric oxide to reactive hyperemia in the forearm of 20 normal subjects (12 women, 8 men) aged 27 +/- 4 yr (means +/- SD),(More)