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Our aim was to determine whether maternal cigarette smoking affects arousal and ventilatory responses to hypoxia in infants. Infants born to non-smoking (NS, n = 15) and smoking mothers (SM, n= 9) were studied at 2-5 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. Ventilatory responses to 15% O(2) were determined preceding arousal. At each age and in both groups, infants(More)
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome has been found to be consistently higher in preterm and low birth weight infants than in infants born at term. Failure to arouse from sleep is one possible mechanism for sudden infant death syndrome. This study compared the arousal responses to nasal air-jet stimulation in a longitudinal study between groups of(More)
Failure to arouse from sleep is a possible mechanism leading to sudden infant death. Using a controlled pulsatile air jet applied alternately to the nostrils we have made multiple measures of arousal threshold both between and within sleep states. Infants (n = 22) born at term were studied at 2-3 wk postterm (mean age 13 d, range 9-17 d, study 1) and again(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether a history of maternal tobacco smoking affected the maturation of arousal responses and whether sleeping position and infant age alters these relations. DESIGN Healthy term infants (13 born to mothers who did not smoke and 11 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy) were studied using daytime polysomnography on three(More)
BACKGROUND This study sought to assess the relationship between the development of infant sleep/wake patterns, temperament and overall mental, motor and behavioural development over the first year of life. We hypothesised that infants with more regular sleep/wake patterns and longer sleep durations would have an easier temperament and higher developmental(More)
Nonverbal behaviors play a crucial role in shaping outcomes in face-to-face clinical interactions. Experienced clinicians use nonverbals to foster rapport and "read" their clients to inform diagnoses. The rise of telemedicine and virtual health agents creates new opportunities, but it also strips away much of this nonverbal channel. Recent advances in(More)
We have compared the roles of neurologic maturity and environmental time cues in the development of the entrained circadian sleep-wake rhythm in the preterm and term human infant. The preterm infants (n = 19) spent some time after birth in a hospital nursery with no environmental time cues, whereas the term infants (n = 22) were exposed from birth to a(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES It has been suggested that mild hypoxia may not be a potent stimulus for arousal during sleep in infants because infants frequently fail to arouse from quiet sleep (QS). Our aim was to characterize arousal responses of sleeping infants in both active sleep (AS) and QS under normoxic and mildly hypoxic (15% O2) conditions over the first 6(More)
The prone sleeping position has been identified in world-wide epidemiological studies as a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Public awareness campaigns throughout the western world have led to an over 50% reduction in postneonatal mortality and frequency of SIDS. This reduction in mortality has been mainly attributed to the(More)
BACKGROUND Actigraphy has been widely used in adults and children for the determination of sleep and wake. However, there have been limited studies in infants and to date there have been no studies to validate the reliability of actigraphy in preterm infants. AIM To evaluate the usefulness of actigraphy in preterm infants in a neonatal unit setting for(More)