Learn More
We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about(More)
In eukaryotic cells, transcription of every protein-coding gene begins with the assembly of an RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) on the promoter. The promoters, in conjunction with enhancers, silencers and insulators, define the combinatorial codes that specify gene expression patterns. Our ability to analyse the control logic encoded in the(More)
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that use a germline 'copy-and-paste' mechanism to spread throughout metazoan genomes. At least 50 per cent of the human genome is derived from retrotransposons, with three active families (L1, Alu and SVA) associated with insertional mutagenesis and disease. Epigenetic and post-transcriptional suppression block(More)
Submicroscopic (less than 2 Mb) segmental DNA copy number changes are a recently recognized source of genetic variability between individuals. The biological consequences of copy number variants (CNVs) are largely undefined. In some cases, CNVs that cause gene dosage effects have been implicated in phenotypic variation. CNVs have been detected in diverse(More)
We applied high-density microarrays to the enrichment of specific sequences from the human genome for high-throughput sequencing. After capture of 6,726 approximately 500-base 'exon' segments, and of 'locus-specific' regions ranging in size from 200 kb to 5 Mb, followed by sequencing on a 454 Life Sciences FLX sequencer, most sequence reads represented(More)
Physical interactions between genetic elements located throughout the genome play important roles in gene regulation and can be identified with the Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) methodology. 3C converts physical chromatin interactions into specific ligation products, which are quantified individually by PCR. Here we present a high-throughput 3C(More)
The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (È1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply(More)
Genomic disorders are characterized by the presence of flanking segmental duplications that predispose these regions to recurrent rearrangement. Based on the duplication architecture of the genome, we investigated 130 regions that we hypothesized as candidates for previously undescribed genomic disorders. We tested 290 individuals with mental retardation by(More)
The abnormal inflorescence meristem1 (aim1) mutation affects inflorescence and floral development in Arabidopsis. After the transition to reproductive growth, the aim1 inflorescence meristem becomes disorganized, producing abnormal floral meristems and resulting in plants with severely reduced fertility. The derived amino acid sequence of AIM1 shows(More)
Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an(More)