Learn More
Emerging evidence supports the concept that T helper type 17 (T(H)17) cells, in addition to mediating autoimmunity, have key roles in mucosal immunity against extracellular pathogens. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17A are both effector cytokines produced by the T(H)17 lineage, and both were crucial for maintaining local control of the Gram-negative(More)
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Although latent HHV-8 DNA can be detected in B cells from persons with these cancers, there is little information on the replication of HHV-8 in B cells. Indeed, B cells are relatively resistant to HHV-8(More)
Preferential activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells limits autoimmune tissue damage during chronic immune responses but can also facilitate tumor growth. Here, we show that tissue-produced inflammatory mediators prime maturing dendritic cells (DC) for the differential ability of attracting anti-inflammatory Treg cells. Our data show that prostaglandin E(2)(More)
Little is known regarding the early events of infection of humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cynomolgus macaque is a useful model of tuberculosis, with strong similarities to human tuberculosis. In this study, eight cynomolgus macaques were infected bronchoscopically with low-dose M. tuberculosis; clinical, immunologic, microbiologic, and(More)
RATIONALE A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the formation of granulomas. However, the immune factors that drive the formation of a protective granuloma during latent TB, and the factors that drive the formation of inflammatory granulomas during active TB, are not well defined. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to identify the(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects one third of the world's population. Among these infections, clinical isolates belonging to the W-Beijing appear to be emerging, representing about 50% of Mtb isolates in East Asia, and about 13% of all Mtb isolates worldwide. In animal models, infection with W-Beijing(More)
We have recently demonstrated that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef binds to the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), leading to its down-modulation from T-cell surfaces (I. Bell, C. Ashman, J. Maughan, E. Hooker, F. Cook, and T. A. Reinhart, J. Gen. Virol. 79:2717-2727, 1998). Using a panel of human as well as rhesus macaque TCR zeta cytoplasmic(More)
IL-23 is required for the IL-17 response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is not required for the early control of bacterial growth. However, mice deficient for the p19 component of IL-23 (Il23a(-/-)) exhibit increased bacterial growth late in infection that is temporally associated with smaller B cell follicles in the lungs. Cxcl13 is(More)
Tumor infiltration with effector CD8(+) T cells (T(eff)) predicts longer recurrence-free survival in many types of human cancer, illustrating the broad significance of T(eff) for effective immunosurveillance. Colorectal tumors with reduced accumulation of T(eff) express low levels of T(eff)-attracting chemokines such as CXCL10/IP10 and CCL5/RANTES. In this(More)
Monocytes and macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia. They represent prominent targets for HIV infection and are thought to facilitate viral neuroinvasion and neuroinflammatory processes. However, many aspects regarding monocyte brain recruitment in HIV infection remain undefined. The(More)