Todd A. Reinhart

Learn More
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
Complement activation in the brain contributes to the pathology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as neuro-AIDS. Using semiquantitative in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we observed an early and sustained increase in the expression of C1q, the initial recognition subcomponent of the classical complement cascade, in the(More)
Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia and a slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, characterized pathologically by inflammation and white matter degeneration in the spinal cord. One of the explanations for the tissue(More)
BACKGROUND Type-1 T cells are critical for effective anti-tumor immune responses. The recently discovered microRNAs (miRs) are a large family of small regulatory RNAs that control diverse aspects of cell function, including immune regulation. We identified miRs differentially regulated between type-1 and type-2 T cells, and determined how the expression of(More)
Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent neurologic complication associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. To study the mechanisms causing HIV-induced peripheral nervous system disease, we examined trigeminal ganglia obtained from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-inoculated macaques.(More)
The variable efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) vaccines and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) emphasize the urgency for not only generating new and more effective vaccines against TB but also understanding the underlying mechanisms that mediate vaccine-induced protection. We demonstrate that mucosal adjuvants, such as(More)
Infection of T cells by HIV-1 can occur through binding of virus to dendritic cell (DC)-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) on dendritic cells and transfer of virus to CD4+ T cells. Here we show that a subset of B cells in the blood and tonsils of normal donors expressed DC-SIGN, and that this increased after stimulation in vitro with interleukin(More)
Neurodegeneration observed in lentiviral-associated encephalitis has been linked to viral-infected and -activated central nervous system macrophages. We hypothesized that lentivirus, macrophages, or both lentivirus and macrophages within distinct microenvironments mediate synaptic damage. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model,(More)
Pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are a public health concern and a major complication of hyper-IgE syndrome, caused by mutations in STAT3. In contrast to previous findings of skin infection, we observed that clearance of SA from the lung did not require T, B, or NK cells but did require Stat3 activation. Immunohistochemistry showed robust(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects one third of the world's population. Among these infections, clinical isolates belonging to the W-Beijing appear to be emerging, representing about 50% of Mtb isolates in East Asia, and about 13% of all Mtb isolates worldwide. In animal models, infection with W-Beijing(More)