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Emerging evidence supports the concept that T helper type 17 (T(H)17) cells, in addition to mediating autoimmunity, have key roles in mucosal immunity against extracellular pathogens. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17A are both effector cytokines produced by the T(H)17 lineage, and both were crucial for maintaining local control of the Gram-negative(More)
Preferential activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells limits autoimmune tissue damage during chronic immune responses but can also facilitate tumor growth. Here, we show that tissue-produced inflammatory mediators prime maturing dendritic cells (DC) for the differential ability of attracting anti-inflammatory Treg cells. Our data show that prostaglandin E(2)(More)
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Although latent HHV-8 DNA can be detected in B cells from persons with these cancers, there is little information on the replication of HHV-8 in B cells. Indeed, B cells are relatively resistant to HHV-8(More)
We have recently demonstrated that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef binds to the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), leading to its down-modulation from T-cell surfaces (I. Bell, C. Ashman, J. Maughan, E. Hooker, F. Cook, and T. A. Reinhart, J. Gen. Virol. 79:2717-2727, 1998). Using a panel of human as well as rhesus macaque TCR zeta cytoplasmic(More)
IL-23 is required for the IL-17 response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is not required for the early control of bacterial growth. However, mice deficient for the p19 component of IL-23 (Il23a(-/-)) exhibit increased bacterial growth late in infection that is temporally associated with smaller B cell follicles in the lungs. Cxcl13 is(More)
Monocytes and macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia. They represent prominent targets for HIV infection and are thought to facilitate viral neuroinvasion and neuroinflammatory processes. However, many aspects regarding monocyte brain recruitment in HIV infection remain undefined. The(More)
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
PURPOSE A phase I/II trial was performed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel vaccination with α-type 1 polarized dendritic cells (αDC1) loaded with synthetic peptides for glioma-associated antigen (GAA) epitopes and administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) in(More)
Little is known regarding the early events of infection of humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cynomolgus macaque is a useful model of tuberculosis, with strong similarities to human tuberculosis. In this study, eight cynomolgus macaques were infected bronchoscopically with low-dose M. tuberculosis; clinical, immunologic, microbiologic, and(More)
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is an inflammatory mediator often used to increase CCR7 expression in the dendritic cells (DCs) used as cancer vaccines and to enhance their responsiveness to lymph node-associated chemokines. Here, we show that high surface expression of CCR7 on PGE(2)-matured DCs is associated with their suppressed production of the endogenous(More)