Learn More
Preferential activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells limits autoimmune tissue damage during chronic immune responses but can also facilitate tumor growth. Here, we show that tissue-produced inflammatory mediators prime maturing dendritic cells (DC) for the differential ability of attracting anti-inflammatory Treg cells. Our data show that prostaglandin E(2)(More)
IL-23 is required for the IL-17 response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is not required for the early control of bacterial growth. However, mice deficient for the p19 component of IL-23 (Il23a(-/-)) exhibit increased bacterial growth late in infection that is temporally associated with smaller B cell follicles in the lungs. Cxcl13 is(More)
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an extraordinarily successful human pathogen, one of the major causes of death by infectious disease worldwide. A key issue for the study of tuberculosis is to understand why individuals infected with Mtb experience different clinical outcomes. To better understand the dynamics of Mtb infection and immunity, we coupled(More)
Complement activation in the brain contributes to the pathology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as neuro-AIDS. Using semiquantitative in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we observed an early and sustained increase in the expression of C1q, the initial recognition subcomponent of the classical complement cascade, in the(More)
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and allograft rejection in transplantation patients. The CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are expressed at sites of inflammation, and they attract CXCR3-bearing lymphocytes, thus contributing to the inflammatory(More)
Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia and a slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, characterized pathologically by inflammation and white matter degeneration in the spinal cord. One of the explanations for the tissue(More)
The lymphatic endothelium is the preferred route for the drainage of interstitial fluid from tissues and also serves as a conduit for peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) to reach draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are known to produce chemokines that recruit Ag-loaded DCs to lymphatic vessels and therefore are likely to regulate the(More)
BACKGROUND Type-1 T cells are critical for effective anti-tumor immune responses. The recently discovered microRNAs (miRs) are a large family of small regulatory RNAs that control diverse aspects of cell function, including immune regulation. We identified miRs differentially regulated between type-1 and type-2 T cells, and determined how the expression of(More)
Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent neurologic complication associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. To study the mechanisms causing HIV-induced peripheral nervous system disease, we examined trigeminal ganglia obtained from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-inoculated macaques.(More)