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The extraordinary abundance of ants in tropical rainforest canopies has led to speculation that numerous arboreal ant taxa feed principally as "herbivores" of plant and insect exudates. Based on nitrogen (N) isotope ratios of plants, known herbivores, arthropod predators, and ants from Amazonia and Borneo, we find that many arboreal ant species obtain(More)
BACKGROUND The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted(More)
Studies on populations ofBrevicoryne brassicae (L.), its parasites and hyperparasites were carried out by actual counting in the sprouts field and by sticky and water traps.B. brassicae was found to be attacked by one primary parasite,Diaretiella rapae (McIntosh), which in turn is parasitized byAlloxysta brassicae (Ashm.),Asaphes vulgaris Walker,A.(More)
Three white poppy seed samples of Papaver somniferum L were found to contain total morphine (free and bound) in the range 58.4 to 62.2 micrograms/g seeds and total codeine (free and bound) in the range 28.4 to 54.1 micrograms/g seeds. Soaking seeds in water was found to remove 45.6 per cent of the free morphine and 48.4 per cent of the free codeine. In(More)
Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM Malaria is a major public health problem, especially in the Southeast Asia region, caused by 5 species of Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi). The aim of this study was to compare parasite species identification methods using the new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against nested PCR and(More)
According to the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Malaysia will experience an increase of 3-5°C in the future. As the development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is sensitive to temperature, we investigated, using computer models, the effect of increase of 3º and 5ºC on the possible changes in the epidemiology(More)
Differentiation of Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on morphological characters has often been problematical. We describe here a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to differentiate between these two species. For detection of SNPs, fragments(More)
The percentage parasitism ofSaissetia nigra (Nietner) by chalcidoid parasites and the relative abundance of individual parasites were studied in the field usingHibiscus rosa-sinensis L. as the host plant. In order of abundance (on the basis of percentage recorded) the primary parasites wereAnysis saissetiae Ash.,Aneristus ceroplastae How., andMicroterys(More)
The relationship between the infestation rate of carambola fruits byBactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock was investigated in a carambola orchard. Phenology of the fruits was found to influence percentage infestation of fruits byB. carambolae. The proportion of unbagged or susceptible fruits infested varied with time of year and tended to decrease with the(More)