Toby S. Cubitt

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Given one or more uses of a classical channel, only a certain number of messages can be transmitted with zero probability of error. The study of this number and its asymptotic behavior constitutes the field of classical zero-error information theory. We show that, given a single use of certain classical channels, entangled states of a system shared by the(More)
The calculation of ground-state energies of physical systems can be formalised as the k-local Hamiltonian problem, which is the natural quantum analogue of classical constraint satisfaction problems. One way of making the problem more physically meaningful is to restrict the Hamiltonian in question by picking its terms from a fixed set S. Examples of such(More)
The theory of zero-error communication is re-examined in the broader setting of using one classical channel to simulate another exactly in the presence of various classes of nonsignalling correlations between sender and receiver i.e., shared randomness, shared entanglement and arbitrary nonsignalling correlations. When the channel being simulated is(More)
The zero-error capacity of a channel is the rate at which it can send information perfectly, with zero probability of error, and has long been studied in classical information theory. We show that the zero-error capacity of quantum channels exhibits an extreme form of nonadditivity, one which is not possible for classical channels, or even for the usual(More)
The zero-error classical capacity of a quantum channel is the asymptotic rate at which it can be used to send classical bits perfectly so that they can be decoded with zero probability of error. We show that there exist pairs of quantum channels, neither of which individually have any zero-error capacity whatsoever (even if arbitrarily many uses of the(More)
We investigate what a snapshot of a quantum evolution--a quantum channel reflecting open system dynamics--reveals about the underlying continuous time evolution. Remarkably, from such a snapshot, and without imposing additional assumptions, it can be decided whether or not a channel is consistent with a time (in)dependent Markovian evolution, for which we(More)
The behavior of any physical system is governed by its underlying dynamical equations. Much of physics is concerned with discovering these dynamical equations and understanding their consequences. In this Letter, we show that, remarkably, identifying the underlying dynamical equation from any amount of experimental data, however precise, is a provably(More)
We show that no entanglement is necessary to distribute entanglement; that is, two distant particles can be entangled by sending a third particle that is never entangled with the other two. Similarly, two particles can become entangled by continuous interaction with a highly mixed mediating particle that never itself becomes entangled. We also consider(More)
Toby Cubitt,1 Aram W. Harrow,2 Debbie Leung,3 Ashley Montanaro,2 and Andreas Winter1, 4 Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, U.K. Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB, U.K. Insitute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo N2L 3G1, Ontario, Canada Centre for Quantum Technologies,(More)
Spin models are used in many studies of complex systems because they exhibit rich macroscopic behavior despite their microscopic simplicity. Here, we prove that all the physics of every classical spin model is reproduced in the low-energy sector of certain "universal models," with at most polynomial overhead. This holds for classical models with discrete or(More)