Toby Nicholson

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BACKGROUND The level of anticoagulation in response to a fixed-dose regimen of warfarin is difficult to predict during the initiation of therapy. We prospectively compared the effect of genotype-guided dosing with that of standard dosing on anticoagulation control in patients starting warfarin therapy. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized,(More)
Action understanding lies at the heart of social interaction. Prior research has often conceptualized this capacity in terms of a motoric matching of observed actions to an action in one's motor repertoire, but has ignored the role of object information. In this manuscript, we set out an alternative conception of intention understanding, which places the(More)
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with closable gastric fistulas and were then tested under closed fistula (real intake) and open fistula (sham intake--fluids drain from the stomach without appreciable absorption) conditions in one of three states: fluid deprivation, sodium depletion, and infusion of angiotensin (Ang) II. Water and various concentrations(More)
The present experiments describe a marked nycthemeral rhythm in both the appetite for 0.3 M NaCl solution and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis stimulated in Sprague-Dawley rats by chronic administration of enalapril, an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor. Continuous recording of water, NaCl, and food intakes shows that the sodium(More)
Action observation is often conceptualized in a bottom-up manner, where sensory information activates conceptual (or motor) representations. In contrast, here we show that expectations about an actor's goal have a top-down predictive effect on action perception, biasing it toward these goals. In 3 experiments, participants observed hands reach for or(More)
We investigated whether top-down expectations about an actor's intentions affect action perception in a representational momentum (RM) paradigm. Participants heard an actor declare an intention to either take or leave an object and then saw him either reach for or withdraw from it, such that action and intention were either congruent or incongruent.(More)
Prior research conceptualised action understanding primarily as a kinematic matching of observed actions to own motor representations but has ignored the role of object information. The current study utilized fMRI to identify (a) regions uniquely involved in encoding the goal of others' actions, and (b) to test whether these goal understanding processes(More)
Desalivate rats consumed significantly less water than sham-operated rats in response to acute challenges with a variety of dipsogens, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), isoproterenol, serotonin, and an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI). Nonsignificant reductions were recorded after treatments with either angiotensin II or hypertonic NaCl.(More)
The perception of an action is shifted farther along the observed trajectory if the observer has prior knowledge of the actor's intention. This intention-action prediction effect is explained by predictive perception models, wherein sensory input is interpreted in light of expectancies. This study altered the precision of the prediction by varying the(More)
We are grateful for Uithol and Maranesi's (2014) insightful comments on our article " The affordance-matching hypothesis: How objects guide action understanding and prediction " (Bach et al., 2014). There, we argued that action understanding is not well-accounted for by process in which observed actions are simply matched, based on kinematic information, to(More)