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Wasting syndrome is a common complication of HIV infection and is marked by progressive weight loss and weakness, often associated with fever. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these syndromes are not well defined, and neither are the brain areas involved. The present study tests a new hypothesis: that the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH),(More)
The literature describing effects of morphine on cells of the immune system points to the clear conclusion that morphine given in vivo suppresses a variety of immune responses that involve the major cell types in the immune system, including natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Depression of NK(More)
The present studies tested the effect of withdrawal from morphine by two different paradigms, abrupt withdrawal (AW) or precipitated withdrawal (PW), on the capacity of murine spleen cells to mount an in vitro antibody response. Mice were made dependent by chronic treatment using s.c. implanted morphine slow-release pellets. Splenocytes were harvested at(More)
Review of the robust literature using acute drug injection paradigms points clearly to the conclusion that morphine is immunosuppressive. In contrast, studies of the effect of subacute or chronic administration of morphine on immune function is limited, with variable results. In some cases tolerance to the immunosuppressive effects of the drug is clearly(More)
We have previously shown that subcutaneous implantation of a 75 mg morphine pellet results in suppression of the ability of murine splenocytes to mount an antibody response to sheep red blood cells, due in part to a reduction of macrophage function. The present studies used flow cytometry to examine whether the decrement in macrophage function in the(More)
In this study we investigated the capacity of morphine to modulate expression of cytokines in peritoneal macrophages. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with a 75-mg morphine slow-release pellet, and 48 h later resident peritoneal macrophages were harvested. Control groups received placebo pellets, naltrexone pellets, or morphine plus naltrexone pellets.(More)
Mice made dependent on morphine using slow-release morphine pellets for 96 h were withdrawn by removal of pellets, followed by a sublethal dose of LPS 24 h later. These animals exhibited 100% lethality. Animals withdrawn from placebo pellets receiving LPS all survived, as did morphine-withdrawn mice receiving saline. Morphine-withdrawn LPS-treated animals(More)
This review summarizes some of the major points discussed by participants in the symposium session on effects of drugs of abuse on both neurologic and immune systems. Speakers in this session are acknowledged experts and biomedical scientists in the rapidly expanding field of studies of abuse drugs on immune responses, especially as related to the effects(More)
This review examines the effects of cannabinoids on immune function, with a focus on effects on T-cells, as well as on resistance to infection. The paper considers the immune modulating capacity of marijuana, of ∆9-THC extracted from the marijuana plant, and synthetic cannabinoids. Of particular interest are synthetic compounds that are CB2 receptor (CB2R)(More)
This study shows that two cannabinoids, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and anandamide, induce dose-related immunosuppression in both the primary and secondary in vitro plaque-forming cell assays of antibody formation. The immunosuppression induced by both compounds could be blocked by SR144528, an antagonist specific for the CB(2) receptor, but not by(More)