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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common of the immune demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Leukocyte/endothelial interactions are important steps in the progression of the disease and substances that interfere with these activities have been evaluated as potential therapeutic agents. Cannabinoid receptor agonists have been shown(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), added in vitro to murine spleen cells in the picomolar range, suppressed antibody formation to sheep red blood cells in a primary and a secondary plaque-forming cell assay. The activity of the peptide was maximal at 10(-12) M, with an asymmetric U-shaped dose-response curve that extended activity to 10(-14) M. Suppression was(More)
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen with a high prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant strains, causing pneumonia and sepsis. The current studies further develop a systemic mouse model of this infection and characterize selected innate immune responses to the organism. Five clinical isolates, with various degrees of antibiotic resistance, were(More)
Wasting syndrome is a common complication of HIV infection and is marked by progressive weight loss and weakness, often associated with fever. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these syndromes are not well defined, and neither are the brain areas involved. The present study tests a new hypothesis: that the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH),(More)
Three mouse strains in the C3H lineage--C3H/HeJ, C3HeB/FeJ, and C3H/HeNCr1BR--were tested for their ability to be protected against infection with Salmonella typhimurium by a panel of nonviable vaccines and by passive transfer of hyperimmune serum. These strains differ in their innate susceptibilities to infection with S. typhimurium, but all are(More)
An avirulent strain of Salmonella, SL3235, has been shown to confer high levels of immunity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice. Immunized mice were also protected against challenge with Listeria monocytogenes, indicating that the Salmonella vaccine activates macrophages. It was shown that protection and macrophage activation occurred(More)
The foregoing literature review and data presentation have been set forth in the hope of clarifying some complex and confusing issues in regard to Salmonella infection. From a practical point of view, the information presented has implications for the direction to take with regard to improving the current typhoid vaccine, as the presently used(More)
Immunization with a virulent Salmonella typhimurium, strain SL3235, has been found to provide high levels of protection against challenge with virulent Salmonella in hypersusceptible mouse strains in the C3H lineage. These mouse strains include the lipopolysaccharide-hyporesponsive C3/HeJ mouse and the closely related but lipopolysaccharide-responsive(More)
It is now clear that opioid receptors participate in the function of the cells of the immune system, and evidence suggests that opioids modulate both innate and acquired immune responses. We review literature here which establishes that mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid compounds alter resistance to a variety of infectious agents, including the Human(More)
A single injection of viable Salmonella typhimurium SL3235, an avirulent organism blocked in the aromatic pathway, induced the generation of activated peritoneal macrophages in three different C3H mouse strains, including macrophage-defective C3H/HeJ mice. Macrophages obtained from immunized mice were cytotoxic for B16 melanoma cells, P815 mastocytoma(More)