Toby K. Eisenstein

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Previous reports from this laboratory, and others, have shown that exogenous mu and kappa opioids modulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. Our earlier work has suggested that accessory cells may serve as a target for the direct effects of kappa opioid compounds. In the present study, the function of the macrophage cell line P388D1 was modulated(More)
Gram-negative sepsis and subsequent endotoxic shock remain major health problems in the United States. The present study examined the role of morphine in inducing sepsis. Mice administered morphine by the subcutaneous implantation of a slow-release pellet developed colonization of the liver, spleen, and peritoneal cavity with gram-negative and other enteric(More)
It is now clear that opioid receptors participate in the function of the cells of the immune system, and evidence suggests that opioids modulate both innate and acquired immune responses. We review literature here which establishes that mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid compounds alter resistance to a variety of infectious agents, including the Human(More)
The literature describing effects of morphine on cells of the immune system points to the clear conclusion that morphine given in vivo suppresses a variety of immune responses that involve the major cell types in the immune system, including natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Depression of NK(More)
This study examined the effect of morphine on oral infection with virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Animals were treated with a 75-mg slow-release morphine pellet followed by inoculation with salmonellae. Morphine markedly sensitized mice to oral infection, as assessed by survival, mean survival time, and colony culture. By 24 h after Salmonella inoculation,(More)
Studies were performed to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of morphine on the phagocytic function of murine peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage monolayers were incubated with Candida albicans for 30 min in the absence of autologous serum. Morphine added in vitro was found to decrease both the phagocytic activity (percent of phagocytic cells) and the(More)
Female C3HeB/FeJ mice implanted with a morphine pellet exhibit a decreased primary antibody response in vitro as measured by the plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Suppression was detected at 24 hr following pellet implantation, was maximal at 48 hr and returned to normal by 120 hr. Splenocytes from control mice cocultured with splenocytes from(More)
Previous work in our laboratory has shown that both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists exhibit immunosuppressive activity for antibody responses in vitro. Our earlier work has suggested that both accessory cells and T cells may be altered following treatment with the kappa-opioid agonist U50,488H. We intend to further determine the identity of the immune cell(More)
Strong evidence for the direct modulation of the immune system by opioids is well documented. Mu-opioids have been shown to alter the release of cytokines important for both host defense and the inflammatory response. Proinflammatory chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) play crucial roles(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), added in vitro to murine spleen cells in the picomolar range, suppressed antibody formation to sheep red blood cells in a primary and a secondary plaque-forming cell assay. The activity of the peptide was maximal at 10−12 M, with an asymmetric U-shaped dose–response curve that extended activity to 10−14 M. Suppression was not(More)