Toby J W Hill

Learn More
The authors evaluated the effect of modified Root orthoses on first metatarsophalangeal joint extension. Motion within the joint was measured dynamically following the insertion of bone markers into the first metatarsal and the hallux. Extension at the joint was greatest when the subjects were barefoot, the mean angle being 62 degrees. Plimsolls restricted(More)
In a previous report, Youngentob et al. (8) described a new and substantially different type of animal psychophysical procedure in which rats were trained to differentially report (i.e., identify) five different odorants. The present study confirms and extends the usefulness of the cross-modal association paradigm as an effective means for developing an(More)
During Cassini's initial orbit, we observed a dynamic magnetosphere composed primarily of a complex mixture of water-derived atomic and molecular ions. We have identified four distinct regions characterized by differences in both bulk plasma properties and ion composition. Protons are the dominant species outside about 9 RS (where RS is the radial distance(More)
This study investigates the discrimination of small changes of interval size in short sequences of musical tones. Major, minor and neutral thirds were varied in increments of 15 cents. The nine subjects had varying degrees of amateur musical experience-their level of musical training was lower than that of professional musicians. In some experiments the(More)
In conflict paradigms, benzodiazepines (BZs) often exhibit maximal anticonflict effects only after three to four BZ exposures (anxiolytic initial subsensitivity; AIS). The present experiments examined 1) whether AIS occurs with non-BZ anxiolytics and 2) whether prior exposure to non-BZs prevents the occurrence of BZ AIS. Female rats were trained to stable(More)
The beta-carbolines and the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) have been reported as "anxiogenic" in several animal models for anxiety. The present study examined the effects of the beta-carboline noreleagnine (NOR) and PTZ, administered alone and in combination with the benzodiazepine antagonist, Ro 15-1788, on behavior in the conditioned suppression(More)
A real-time Automated Computerized Rat Eater Meter was developed by modifying commercially available metabolic cages. Food access via a feeding tunnel was monitored by photocells. Food consumption was measured by an electronic scale. The signals thus generated were processed by a computer. This allowed us to continuously measure the spontaneous feeding(More)
The present studies examined the effects of chronic treatment with several antidepressants and clonidine on conflict behavior. In daily ten-minute sessions, water-deprived rats were trained to drink from a tube which was occasionally electrified (0.25 or 0.5 mA). Electrification was signalled by a tone. Chronic desipramine (5 mg/kg, IP, b.i.d.) or clonidine(More)