Toby G. Rossman

Learn More
Epidemiological evidence shows an association between inorganic arsenic in drinking water and increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancers. The lack of animal models has hindered mechanistic studies of arsenic carcinogenesis in the past, but some promising new models for these cancers are now available. The various forms of arsenic to which humans are(More)
Although epidemiological evidence shows an association between arsenic in drinking water and increased risk of skin, lung, and bladder cancers, arsenic compounds are not animal carcinogens. The lack of animal models has hindered mechanistic studies of arsenic carcinogenesis. Previously, this laboratory found that low concentrations of arsenite (the likely(More)
Arsenite, the most likely environmental carcinogenic form of arsenic, is not significantly mutagenic at non-toxic concentrations, but is able to enhance the mutagenicity of other agents. Evidence suggests that this comutagenic effect of arsenite is due to inhibition of DNA repair, but no specific repair enzyme has been found to be sensitive to low (<1(More)
Arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is a worldwide problem for which there is currently limited means for control. Recently, we showed that arsenite in drinking water greatly potentiates solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced skin cancer in mice, at concentrations as low as 1.25 mg/l. In this study, we examined the protective efficacy of vitamin E and(More)
The present study was designed to establish the form of the dose-response relationship for dietary sodium arsenite as a co-carcinogen with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a mouse skin model. Hairless mice (strain Skh1) were fed sodium arsenite continuously in drinking water starting at 21 days of age at concentrations of 0.0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/L. At(More)
We have previously shown that the inhibition of MNU-induced DNA repair by arsenite occurs after the incision step in Chinese hamster V79 cells. We now report that nuclear DNA ligase activity is inhibited after arsenite treatment and that the inhibited activity is mostly DNA ligase II. Both constitutive and MNU-inducible levels of DNA ligase II are(More)
Arsenite is a human multisite carcinogen, but its mechanism of action is not known. We recently found that extremely low concentrations (</=0.1 microM) of arsenite transform human osteosarcoma TE85 (HOS) cells to anchorage-independence. In contrast to other carcinogens which transform these cells within days of exposure, almost 8 weeks of arsenite exposure(More)
Environmental arsenic compounds and their methylated metabolites do not form adducts with DNA, but do cause oxidative DNA damage. Chromosome aberrations are seen at toxic concentrations. Genetic effects that occur at non-toxic concentrations include aneuploidy, comutagenesis (resulting from indirect effects on DNA repair), and delayed mutagenesis (probably(More)
The Microscreen assay was developed as a means of testing very small samples, as in complex mixture fractionation. It is a multi-endpoint assay which utilizes E. coli WP2s(lambda). Exposure takes place to serial dilutions of the test compound in microtitre wells (250 microliters) followed by sampling from wells in which growth has occurred ('non-toxic(More)
A number of metal compounds have been shown to be human carcinogens. Others, while not proven human carcinogens, are able to cause tumors in laboratory animals. Short-term bacterial assays for genotoxic effects have not been successful in predicting the carcinogenicity of metal compounds. We report here the ability of some metal compounds to cause the(More)