Toby E. Hughes

Learn More
Our understanding of tooth eruption in humans remains incomplete. We hypothesized that genetic factors contribute significantly to phenotypic variation in the emergence of primary incisors. We applied model-fitting to data from Australian twins to quantify contributions of genetic and environmental factors to variation in timing of the emergence of human(More)
Molecular studies indicate that epigenetic events are important in determining how the internal enamel epithelium folds during odontogenesis. Since this process of folding leads to the subsequent arrangement of cusps on molar teeth, we hypothesized that intercuspal distances of human molar teeth would display greater phenotypic variation but lower(More)
BACKGROUND Comparisons between monozygotic (MZ) co-twins have tended to focus on the similarities between their dentitions rather than differences. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of discordant expression for simple hypodontia and supernumerary teeth in MZ twin pairs and to explain how phenotypic differences might occur despite their(More)
Our studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins commenced at the School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide in the early 1980s. There are now over 900 pairs of twins enrolled in our continuing investigations, together with 1200 relatives. There are 3 main cohorts of participants. The first cohort comprises around 300 pairs of teenage twins for(More)
Investigations of permanent dental crown size in twins and family groups indicate a high degree of transmissible control, but little is known about the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to variation in size of the deciduous (primary) teeth. Here, maximum mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of maxillary and mandibular(More)
Chorion type is an important variable that can affect the prenatal environment of monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, leading to differences in growth and development. In particular, vascular anastomoses between monochorionic (MC) MZ twin pairs can lead to an imbalance in nutrition between co-twins. One objective of this study was to determine whether maternal(More)
Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge.(More)
BACKGROUND Information on the timing and sequence of human tooth emergence is valuable when analysing human growth and development, predicting the age of individuals, and for understanding the effects of genetic and environmental influences on growth processes. This paper provides updated data on the timing and sequence of primary tooth emergence in(More)
In this study, we quantified the extent of variation in different occlusal features of Australian children of European descent with complete primary dentitions, but no permanent teeth present in the mouth. The study group consisted of 412 individuals, aged between 3 and 7 years, including 70 monozygous (MZ) twin pairs, 68 same-sexed dizygous (DZ) twin(More)
BACKGROUND We have provided evidence of secular increases in stature and acceleration of skeletal maturation in Australian male children and young adults in recent decades, and relatively less prominent secular increases in stature in females. AIMS Our aims were to construct new references for stature and skeletal age in Australians. METHODS We(More)