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Not only poststimulus, but also prestimulus neural activity has been shown to be predictive for later successful memory encoding. However, it is still not clear which medial temporal lobe processes precede effective memory formation. Here, our aim was to investigate whether such prestimulus markers for successful memory encoding can be specified based on(More)
It is a fundamental question whether the medial temporal lobe (MTL) supports only long-term memory encoding, or contributes to working memory (WM) processes as well. Recent data suggest that the MTL is activated whenever multiple items or item features are being maintained in WM. This may rely on interactions between the MTL or the prefrontal cortex (PFC)(More)
Carotenoids are constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus and essential for plant survival because of their involvement in protection of chlorophylls against photooxidation. Certain classes of herbicides are interfering with carotenoid biosynthesis leading to pigment destruction and a bleached plant phenotype. One important target site for bleaching(More)
Multi-objective as well as dynamic characteristics appear in many real-world problems. In order to use multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEA) efficiently, a systematic analysis of the algorithms' behavior in dynamic environments by means of dynamic test functions is necessary. These functions can be classified into problems with(More)
We extend the concept of symbolic transfer entropy to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that(More)
Complex interactions between neocortex and hippocampus are the neural basis of memory formation. Two-step theories of memory formation suggest that initial encoding of novel information depends on the induction of rapid plasticity within the hippocampus, and is followed by a second sleep-dependent step of memory consolidation. These theories predict(More)