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The dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) is highly active during choice behavior. Though many models have been proposed to explain dMFC function, the conflict monitoring model is the most influential. It posits that dMFC is primarily involved in detecting interference between competing responses thus signaling the need for control. It accurately predicts(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular system that impedes entry of all large and the vast majority of small molecules including the most potent central nervous system (CNS) disease therapeutic agents from entering from the lumen into the brain parenchyma. Microbubble-enhanced, focused ultrasound (ME-FUS) has been previously shown to(More)
BACKGROUND Our visual system enables us to recognize visual objects across a wide range of spatial scales. The neural mechanisms underlying these abilities are still poorly understood. Size- or scale-independent representation of visual objects might be supported by processing in primary visual cortex (V1). Neurons in V1 are selective for spatial frequency(More)
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in non-human primates is on the increase. It is known that the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal varies not only as a function of local neuronal energy consumption but also as a function of cardiac and respiratory activity. We mapped these cyclic cardiac and respiratory artifacts in(More)
The delivery of drugs to specific neural targets faces two fundamental problems: (1) most drugs do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and (2) those that do, spread to the entire brain. To date, there exists only one non-invasive methodology with the potential to solve these problems: selective blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using micro-bubble enhanced(More)
The spatially uniform mislocalization of stimuli flashed around the onset of fast eye-movements (perisaccadic shift) has previously been explained by an inaccurate internal representation of current eye position. However, this hypothesis does not account for the observation that continuously presented stimuli are correctly localized during saccades. Here we(More)
The frontal eye fields (FEF) are thought to mediate response selection during oculomotor decision tasks. In addition, many FEF neurons have robust postsaccadic responses, but their role in postchoice evaluative processes (online performance monitoring) is only beginning to become apparent. Here we report error-related neural activity in FEF while monkeys(More)
Why do humans make errors on seemingly trivial perceptual decisions? It has been shown that such errors occur in part because the decision process (evidence accumulation) is initiated before selective attention has isolated the relevant sensory information from salient distractors. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that subjects increase accuracy by(More)
Sensory decisions may be influenced by non-sensory information regarding reward magnitude or reward likelihood. Given identical sensory information, it is more optimal to choose an option if it is a priori more likely to be correct and hence rewarded (prior reward likelihood bias), or if it yields a larger reward, given that it is the correct choice (reward(More)