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The microtubule-associated protein tau regulates the dynamic stability of the neuronal cytoskeleton by interacting with microtubules. It is encoded by a single gene, but expressed in a variety of isoforms due to differential RNA splicing. Six isoforms can be found in the human central nervous system. These isoforms differ in their ability to promote the(More)
The beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a prerequisite for the generation of beta-amyloid peptides, which give rise to cerebrovascular and parenchymal beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. BACE1 is neuronally expressed in the brains of humans and experimental animals such as mice and rats. In addition, we have recently(More)
Avian polyomavirus (APV) is the causative agent of an acute fatal disease in psittacine and some non-psittacine birds. In contrast to mammalian polyomaviruses, the APV genome encodes the additional capsid protein VP4 and its variant VP4Delta, truncated by an internal deletion. Both proteins induce apoptosis. Mutation of their common initiation codon(More)
Whilst it is generally accepted that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) increases amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion in vitro, the role of PKC in the regulation of APP processing and beta-amyloid generation in vivo is still not well understood. In order to address this question, we established the animal model of neocortical microencephalopathy(More)
The pathophysiology of stroke is governed by immune reactions within and remote from the injured brain. Hypertension, a major cause and comorbidity of stroke, entails systemic vascular inflammation and may influence poststroke immune responses. This aspect is, however, underestimated in previous studies. Here we aimed to delineate the sequence of cellular(More)
Experimental transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mononuclear cells (MNCs) in rodent stroke models revealed the therapeutic potential of these cells. However, effective cells within the heterogeneous MNC population and their modes of action are still under discussion. MNCs and MNC fractions enriched (CD34(+)) or depleted (CD34(-)) for(More)
The two proteases beta-secretase and gamma-secretase generate the amyloid beta peptide and are drug targets for Alzheimer's disease. Here we tested the possibility of targeting the cellular environment of beta-secretase cleavage instead of the beta-secretase enzyme itself. beta-Secretase has an acidic pH optimum and cleaves the amyloid precursor protein in(More)
Infection with the neurotropic Borna disease virus (BDV) causes an immune-mediated neurological disease in a broad range of species. In addition to encephalitis, BDV-infected Lewis rats develop a retinitis histologically characterized by the loss of most retinal neurons. By contrast, the dominating retinal macroglia, the Müller cells, do not degenerate. It(More)
OBJECTIVE Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is highly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. The BACE1 gene is located in a region associated with a high diabetes risk in PIMA Indians. DESIGN AND METHODS INS-1E cells were used to study the impact of siRNA-mediated BACE1 knockdown and glucose metabolism was characterized in Bace1(-/-)(More)
CONTEXT Activity of beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) is required for the generation of beta-amyloid peptides, the principal constituents of plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Strong BACE1 expression has also been described in pancreatic tissue. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to reveal the cell type-specific(More)