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Prevailing theories of implicit or unaware learning propose a developmental invariance model, with implicit function maturing early in infancy or childhood despite prolonged improvements in explicit or intentional learning and memory systems across childhood. Neuroimaging studies of adult visuomotor sequence learning have associated fronto-striatal brain(More)
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons projecting to the ventral striatum code for reward magnitude and probability during reward anticipation and then indicate the difference between actual and predicted outcome. It has been questioned whether such a common system for the prediction and evaluation of reward exists in humans. Using functional magnetic resonance(More)
Reward processing depends on dopaminergic neurotransmission and is modulated by factors affecting dopamine (DA) reuptake and degradation. We used fMRI and a guessing task sensitive to reward-related activation in the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum to study how individual variation in genes contributing to DA reuptake [DA transporter (DAT)] and(More)
RATIONALE The subjective perception of dyspnea, which is an impairing symptom in various cardiopulmonary diseases, consists of sensory (intensity) and affective aspects (unpleasantness). However, little is known about the cortical processing of the perception of dyspnea. OBJECTIVES To investigate the cortical areas associated with the processing of the(More)
Perceptual load of an attended task influences the processing of irrelevant background stimuli. In a series of behavioral, functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments we examined the influence of working memory (WM) load related to a relevant visual stimulus on the processing of irrelevant backgrounds. We further(More)
Events are stored in our episodic memory in varying degrees of accessibility for conscious retrieval and combined with varying amounts of associated information. A crucial aspect of episodic memory is to bind information together, e.g. linking an object to a certain location. Spontaneous or experimenter-induced variance in the allocation of attentional(More)
The present study aimed to shed light on the neural underpinnings of high vs. low memory confidence. To dissociate memory confidence from accuracy, the Deese-Roediger McDermott (DRM) paradigm was employed, which - compared to other memory paradigms - elicits a rather evenly distributed number of high-confident responses across all possible combinations of(More)
The main goal of the present fMRI-study was to identify the neural correlates underlying the successful encoding of words which can subsequently be freely recalled or recognized but not recalled. We were particularly interested in common as well as distinct neural substrates of both retrieval modes. To assess qualitatively differently activated brain areas,(More)
As shown in non-human primate and human fMRI studies the probability and magnitude of anticipated rewards modulate activity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Importantly, non-human primate data have revealed that single dopaminergic neurons code for both probability and magnitude of expected reward, suggesting an identical system. Using a guessing task(More)
The influence of counterfactual thinking and regret on choice behavior has been widely acknowledged in economic science (Bell in Oper Res 30:961-981, 1982; Kahneman and Tversky in Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 201-210, 1982; Loomes and Sugden in Econ J 92:805-824, 1982). Neuroimaging studies(More)