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The plant shoot body plan is highly variable, depending on the degree of branching. Characterization of the max1-max4 mutants of Arabidopsis demonstrates that branching is regulated by at least one carotenoid-derived hormone. Here we show that all four MAX genes act in a single pathway, with MAX1, MAX3, and MAX4 acting in hormone synthesis, and MAX2 acting(More)
Strigolactones (SLs), or their derivatives, were recently demonstrated to act as endogenous shoot branching inhibitors, but their biosynthesis and mechanism of action are poorly understood. Here we show that the branching phenotype of mutants in the Arabidopsis P450 family member, MAX1, can be fully rescued by strigolactone addition, suggesting that MAX1(More)
Root gravitropism describes the orientation of root growth along the gravity vector and is mediated by differential cell elongation in the root meristem. This response requires the coordinated, asymmetric distribution of the phytohormone auxin within the root meristem, and depends on the concerted activities of PIN proteins and AUX1 - members of the auxin(More)
Plant pathogenic fungi of the genus Fusarium cause agriculturally important diseases of small grain cereals and maize. Trichothecenes are a class of mycotoxins produced by different Fusarium species that inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and presumably interfere with the expression of genes induced during the defense response of the plants. One of its(More)
Long distance cell-to-cell communication is critical for the development of multicellular organisms. In this respect, plants are especially demanding as they constantly integrate environmental inputs to adjust growth processes to different conditions. One example is thickening of shoots and roots, also designated as secondary growth. Secondary growth is(More)
BACKGROUND Plants achieve remarkable plasticity in shoot system architecture by regulating the activity of secondary shoot meristems, laid down in the axil of each leaf. Axillary meristem activity, and hence shoot branching, is regulated by a network of interacting hormonal signals that move through the plant. Among these, auxin, moving down the plant in(More)
Plant growth and development are highly regulated processes that are coordinated by hormones including the brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroids with structural similarity to steroid hormones of mammals. Although it is well understood how BRs are produced and how their signals are transduced, BR targets, which directly confer the hormone's(More)
The auxin efflux carrier EIR1 (also known as AGR and AtPIN2) is a key mediator of the response of Arabidopsis roots to gravity [1,2]. This response is thought to require the establishment of a transient auxin gradient in the root meristem, resulting in differential cell elongation [3]. Recent reports suggest that EIR1 is essential for the asymmetric(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that are essential for the development of plants. A tight control of BR homeostasis is vital for modulating their impact on growth responses. Although it is recognized that the rapid adaptation of de novo synthesis has a key role in adjusting required BR levels, our knowledge of the mechanisms governing feedback(More)
Plant development is highly adaptable and controlled by a combination of various regulatory circuits that integrate internal and environmental cues. The phytohormone auxin mediates such growth responses, acting as a dynamic signal in the control of morphogenesis via coordinating the interplay between cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. Mutants(More)