Tobias Schwerd

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The ATPase retinoid acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I senses viral RNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells and subsequently activates cellular antiviral defense mechanisms. RIG-I recognizes molecular structures that discriminate viral from host RNA. Here, we show that RIG-I ligands require base-paired structures in conjunction with a free 5'-triphosphate to(More)
Genetic and epigenetic plasticity allows tumors to evade single-targeted treatments. Here we direct Bcl2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) with 5'-triphosphate ends (3p-siRNA) against melanoma. Recognition of 5'-triphosphate by the cytosolic antiviral helicase retinoic acid-induced protein I (Rig-I, encoded by Ddx58) activated innate immune cells such(More)
IL-37 is a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity. Human IL-37 has a caspase-1 cleavage site and translocates to the nucleus upon LPS stimulation. Here, we investigated whether caspase-1 processing affects IL-37-mediated suppression of LPS-induced cytokines and the release from cells by analyzing a caspase-1 cleavage site mutant IL-37 (IL-37D20A). Nuclear(More)
Patients with a diverse spectrum of rare genetic disorders can present with inflammatory bowel disease (monogenic IBD). Patients with these disorders often develop symptoms during infancy or early childhood, along with endoscopic or histological features of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or IBD unclassified. Defects in interleukin-10 signaling have a(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with a complex mode of inheritance. Although nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) is the strongest risk factor, the cause of Crohn disease remains unknown in the majority of the cases. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency causes X-linked(More)
OBJECTIVES The function of interleukin (IL)-37 has not been resolved. We recently showed that IL-37 suppresses colonic inflammation in mice. To gain more insight into its relevance in human disease, we investigated the expression of IL-37 in the intestine of pediatric patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS Intestinal biopsies were(More)
BACKGROUND Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) induces remission and mucosal healing in children with active Crohn's disease (CD). AIM To compare short- and long-term outcomes of the first vs. second courses of EEN, and to identify predictors of sustained remission. METHODS Retrospective single centre analysis of all patients with CD (6-18 years) treated(More)
The role of immune suppression by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the maintenance of immune homeostasis is well established. However, little is known about how Treg cell function is inhibited on viral infection to allow the development of a protective immune response. As viral RNA is a crucial mediator for activation of antiviral immunity, we examined the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Severe forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that develop in very young children can be caused by variants in a single gene. We performed whole-exome sequence (WES) analysis to identify genetic factors that might cause granulomatous colitis and severe perianal disease, with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, in an infant of(More)