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Classic nuclear export signals (NESs) confer CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Here we present crystal structures of the RanGTP-CRM1 complex alone and bound to the prototypic PKI or HIV-1 Rev NESs. These NESs differ markedly in the spacing of their key hydrophobic (Φ) residues, yet CRM1 recognizes them with the same rigid set of five Φ pockets. The different Φ(More)
Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a nuclear protein that carries a proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signal (PY-NLS) and is imported into the nucleus via Transportin (TRN). Defects in nuclear import of FUS have been implicated in neurodegeneration, since mutations in the PY-NLS of FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Moreover, FUS is deposited in the(More)
Protein folding in the cell relies on the orchestrated action of conserved families of molecular chaperones, the Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems. Hsp70 acts early and Hsp90 late in the folding path, yet the molecular basis of this timing is enigmatic, mainly because the substrate specificity of Hsp90 is poorly understood. Here, we obtained a structural model of(More)
Many cellular functions involve multi-domain proteins, which are composed of structurally independent modules connected by flexible linkers. Although it is often well understood how a given domain recognizes a cognate oligonucleotide or peptide motif, the dynamic interaction of multiple domains in the recognition of these ligands remains to be(More)
A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences,(More)
Sam68 (Src-associated during mitosis, 68 kDa) is a prototypical member of the STAR (signal transducer and activator of RNA) family of RNA-binding proteins. STAR proteins bind mRNA targets and modulate cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and tissue development in response to extracellular signals. Sam68 has been shown to modulate alternative(More)
Hsp90 is the most abundant molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cell. One of the most stringent clients is the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), whose in vivo function strictly depends on the interaction with the Hsp90 machinery. However, the molecular mechanism of this interaction has been elusive. Here we have reconstituted the interaction of Hsp90 with(More)
The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis(More)
Protein import into peroxisomes depends on a complex and dynamic network of protein-protein interactions. Pex14 is a central component of the peroxisomal import machinery and binds the soluble receptors Pex5 and Pex19, which have important function in the assembly of peroxisome matrix and membrane, respectively. We show that the N-terminal domain of Pex14,(More)
IgM is the first antibody produced during the humoral immune response. Despite its fundamental role in the immune system, IgM is structurally only poorly described. In this work we used X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy to determine the atomic structures of the constant IgM Fc domains (Cµ2, Cµ3, and Cµ4) and to address their roles in IgM(More)