Tobias Langenhan

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A rise in [Ca(2+)](i) provides the trigger for neurotransmitter release at neuronal boutons. We have used confocal microscopy and Ca(2+) sensitive dyes to directly measure the action potential-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) in the boutons of Schaffer collaterals. This reveals that the trial-by-trial amplitude of the evoked Ca(2+) transient is bimodally distributed. We(More)
The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature(More)
Adhesion-type heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (Adhesion-GPCRs) comprise a class of widely distributed seven-transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors with unusual layout and properties. The key to understanding the function of Adhesion-GPCRs appears to be their hybrid architecture: They have an extracellular(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has provided a breakthrough for the optogenetic control of neuronal activity. In adult Drosophila melanogaster, however, its applications are severely constrained. This limitation in a powerful model system has curtailed unfolding the full potential of ChR2 for behavioral neuroscience. Here, we describe the D156C mutant, termed(More)
Latrophilin-1 (Lat-1), a target receptor for alpha-Latrotoxin, is a putative G protein-coupled receptor implicated in synaptic function. The extracellular portion of Lat-1 contains a rhamnose binding lectin (RBL)-like domain of unknown structure. RBL domains, first isolated from the eggs of marine species, are also found in the ectodomains of other metazoan(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily regarded as an astrocytic lesion factor, promoting neuronal survival and influencing plasticity processes in deafferented areas of the CNS. Postnatal loss of neurons in CNTF-deficient mice indicates a function of the factor also under physiological conditions. In the olfactory bulb, where neurogenesis, axo-(More)
Members of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) class have emerged as crucial regulators of nervous system development, with important implications for human health and disease. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of aGPCR functions during key steps in neural development, including cortical patterning, dendrite and synapse(More)
Adhesion-GPCRs provide essential cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in development, and have been implicated in inherited human diseases like Usher Syndrome and bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. They are the second largest subfamily of seven-transmembrane spanning proteins in vertebrates, but the function of most of these receptors is still not(More)
Elucidation of structural information can greatly facilitate the understanding of molecular function. A recent example is the description of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain, an evolutionarily ancient fold present in Adhesion-GPCRs (aGPCRs) and polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1)-like proteins. In the past, the(More)
The adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) comprises 33 members in humans. aGPCRs are characterized by their enormous size and complex modular structures. While the physiologic importance of many aGPCRs has been clearly demonstrated in recent years, the underlying molecular functions have only recently begun to be elucidated. In this(More)