Tobias Kollmann

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The human neonate and infant are unduly susceptible to infection with a wide variety of microbes. This susceptibility is thought to reflect differences from adults in innate and adaptive immunity, but the nature of these differences is incompletely characterized. The innate immune response directs the subsequent adaptive immune response after integrating(More)
Given the "inborn" nature of the innate immune system, it is surprising to find that innate immune function does in fact change with age. Similar patterns of distinct Toll-like-receptor-mediated immune responses come to light when one contrasts innate immune development at the beginning of life with that toward the end of life. Importantly, these(More)
Newborns and young infants suffer increased infectious morbidity and mortality as compared to older children and adults. Morbidity and mortality due to infection are highest during the first weeks of life, decreasing over several years. Furthermore, most vaccines are not administered around birth, but over the first few years of life. A more complete(More)
In addition to their role in triggering innate immune responses, Toll-like receptors are proposed to play a key role in linking the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The majority of cellular responses downstream of Toll-like receptors are mediated through the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and mice with a targeted(More)
Subunit vaccine formulations often include adjuvants that primarily stimulate innate immune cells. While young infants represent the major target population for vaccination, effective immunization in this age group remains a challenge. Many parameters of innate immune responses differ quantitatively and qualitatively from newborns to infants and adults,(More)
BACKGROUND Infants born prematurely are highly vulnerable to infections and also exhibit a high susceptibility to organ damage due to inflammation. METHODS To investigate homeostatic immune control early in life, we used advanced multiparameter flow cytometry to compare responses to multiple Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in single cells and mononuclear(More)
Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved(More)
Polychromatic flow cytometry allows the capture of multidimensional data, providing the technical tool to assess complex immune responses. Interrogation of the adaptive T cell response to infection or vaccination already has benefited greatly from standardized protocols for polychromatic flow cytometric analysis. The innate immune system plays an important(More)
Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of physiology and immune cell function that is found at elevated levels in neonatal blood, is generated by phosphohydrolysis of adenine nucleotides released from cells and catabolized by deamination to inosine. Generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in blood is driven by cell-associated enzymes, whereas(More)
The first months of life represent a period of heightened susceptibility to infection, but the immunological differences involved are as yet incompletely understood. T cell-independent B cell (antibody) responses are markedly compromised in the first year of life. T cell-dependent antibody responses mature much earlier, but neonates and infants may require(More)