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Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the protein huntingtin (htt). Pathogenesis in HD appears to involve the formation of ubiquitinated neuronal intranuclear inclusions containing N-terminal mutated htt, abnormal protein interactions, and the aggregate sequestration of a variety of proteins(More)
β(2)-Adrenoceptor (β(2)-AR) agonists are powerful bronchodilators and play a pivotal role in the management of pulmonary obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although these agents first were used many years ago, progress in drug development has resulted in better tolerated, long-acting β(2)-AR agonists (LABAs),(More)
Antagonizing the human M3 muscarinic receptor (hM3R) over a long time is a key feature of modern bronchodilating COPD drugs aiming at symptom relief. The long duration of action of the antimuscarinic drug tiotropium and its kinetic subtype selectivity over hM2R are investigated by kinetic mapping of the binding site and the exit channel of hM3R. Hence,(More)
An activator protein 1-driven luciferase reporter assay was developed to monitor the activation of the human muscarinic M3 receptor (hM3-R) and evaluate functional potencies of different anticholinergics in Chinese hamster ovary cells. This assay proved to be superior to previously used functional assays [i.e., inositol phosphate accumulation (J Pharmacol(More)
Human muscarinic M₃ receptors (hM₃Rs) induce smooth muscle contraction and mucus gland secretion in response to parasympathetic stimulation. As a consequence of hM₃R function, muscarinic antagonists have wide therapeutic use to treat overactive bladder, abdominal pain (irritable bowel syndrome), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this(More)
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