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Mutations of NPHS1 or NPHS2, the genes encoding nephrin and podocin, as well as the targeted disruption of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), lead to heavy proteinuria, suggesting that all three proteins are essential for the integrity of glomerular podocytes, the visceral glomerular epithelial cells of the kidney. It has been speculated that these proteins(More)
Hereditary nephrotic syndrome is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by heavy proteinuria and renal failure. Mutations of NPHS1 or NPHS2, the genes encoding for nephrin and podocin, lead to early onset of heavy proteinuria, and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease, suggesting that both proteins are essential for the integrity of the glomerular(More)
Injury and loss of podocytes are leading factors of glomerular disease and renal failure. The postmitotic podocyte is the primary glomerular target for toxic, immune, metabolic, and oxidant stress, but little is known about how this cell type copes with stress. Recently, autophagy has been identified as a major pathway that delivers damaged proteins and(More)
Mutations of NPHS1 or NPHS2, the genes encoding for the glomerular podocyte proteins nephrin and podocin, cause steroid-resistant proteinuria. In addition, mice lacking NEPH1 develop a nephrotic syndrome that resembles NPHS mutations, suggesting that all three proteins are essential for the integrity of glomerular podocytes. Podocin interacts with the(More)
Mutations of the immunoglobulin superfamily proteins nephrin and Neph1 lead to congenital nephrotic syndrome in humans or mice. Neph proteins are three closely related molecules that are evolutionarily conserved and mediate cell recognition. Their importance for morphogenetic processes including the formation of the kidney filtration barrier in vertebrates(More)
The assembly of specific synaptic connections represents a prime example of cellular recognition. Members of the Ig superfamily are among the most ancient proteins represented in the genomes of both mammalian and invertebrate organisms, where they constitute a trans-synaptic adhesion system. The correct connectivity patterns of the highly conserved(More)
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common primary glomerular diagnosis resulting in end-stage renal disease. Defects in several podocyte proteins have been implicated in the etiology of FSGS, including podocin, alpha-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), and TRPC6. Despite our growing understanding of genes involved in the(More)
Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells exist in both intra- and extra-adrenal locations; the organ of Zuckerkandl (OZ) constitutes the largest accumulation of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue in mammals. The OZ disappears postnatally by modes that are still enigmatic but can be maintained by treatment with glucocorticoids (GC). Whether the response to GC reflects a(More)
Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease that leads to renal failure in childhood or adolescence. Most NPHP gene products form molecular networks. Here we identify ANKS6 as a new NPHP family member that connects NEK8 (NPHP9) to INVS (NPHP2) and NPHP3. We show that ANKS6 localizes to the proximal cilium and confirm its role in renal(More)
Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned(More)