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There is much empirical evidence for modulation of attention by negative -- particularly fear-relevant -- emotional stimuli. This modulation is often explained in terms of a fear module. Appraisal theories of emotion posit a more general mechanism, predicting attention capture by stimuli that are relevant for the needs and goals of the organism, regardless(More)
" We can tell how someone is feeling, and we can specifically identify responses associated with sociopathic tendencies. Here we determined that the defendant was racist [with] extreme accuracy. In this case, we showed Mr. Bass pictures of people from various races, and then we measured the response in the part of his brain that controls fear. It's called(More)
An alternative to the view that during evolution the human brain became specialized to preferentially attend to threat-related stimuli is to assume that all classes of stimuli that have high biological significance are prioritized by the attention system. Newborns are highly biologically relevant stimuli for members of a species, as their survival is(More)
Selective attention is not a unitary construct, but is composed of several processes. Attention selection may be guided by low-level stimulus properties, by the emotional value of the stimulus, or more voluntarily by the goals and plans of the observer. Whether these three systems operate independently during attention selection or not remains a debated(More)
Emotionally relevant stimuli are prioritized in human information processing. It has repeatedly been shown that selective spatial attention is modulated by the emotional content of a stimulus. Until now, studies investigating this phenomenon have only examined within-modality effects, most frequently using pictures of emotional stimuli to modulate visual(More)
Emotional attention, the boosting of the processing of emotionally relevant stimuli, has, up to now, mainly been investigated within a sensory modality, for instance, by using emotional pictures to modulate visual attention. In real-life environments, however, humans typically encounter simultaneous input to several different senses, such as vision and(More)
Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception(More)
Implicit race bias has been shown to affect decisions and behaviors. It may also change perceptual experience by increasing perceived differences between social groups. We investigated how this phenomenon may be expressed at the neural level by testing whether the distributed blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) patterns representing Black and White(More)
Despite an initial focus on negative threatening stimuli, researchers have more recently expanded the investigation of attentional biases toward positive rewarding stimuli. The present meta-analysis systematically compared attentional bias for positive compared with neutral visual stimuli across 243 studies (N = 9,120 healthy participants) that used(More)
Event-based sensing, i.e., the asynchronous detection of luminance changes, promises low-energy, high dynamic range, and sparse sensing. This stands in contrast to whole image frame-wise acquisition by standard cameras. Here, we systematically investigate the implications of event-based sensing in the context of visual motion, or flow, estimation. Starting(More)