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The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first cortical area to receive visual input, and inferior temporal (IT) areas are among the last along the ventral visual pathway. We recorded, in area V1 of anaesthetized cats and area IT of awake macaque monkeys, responses of neurons to videos of natural scenes. Responses were analysed to test various hypotheses(More)
Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are thought to receive inhibition from other V1 neurons selective for a variety of orientations. Evidence for this inhibition is commonly found in cross-orientation suppression: responses of a V1 neuron to optimally oriented bars are suppressed by superimposed mask bars of different orientation. We show, however, that(More)
Recently, it has been proposed that all suppressive phenomena observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) are mediated by a single mechanism, involving inhibition by pools of neurons, which, between them, represent a wide range of stimulus specificities. The strength of such inhibition would depend on the stimulus that produces it (particularly its contrast)(More)
The responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli presented in the region surrounding the receptive field. There is debate as to whether this surround suppression is due to intracortical inhibition, is inherited from lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), or is due to a combination of these factors. The mechanisms involved in(More)
For the majority of neurones in cat striate cortex, the response to an optimal stimulus presented to one eye is suppressed when a stimulus of substantially different orientation is presented to the other eye. In order to determine the true orientational tuning of the underlying inhibitory interactions in the absence of binocular facilitation for matched(More)
We investigated whether stimulation of the pyramidal tract (PT) could reset the phase of 15-30 Hz beta oscillations observed in the macaque motor cortex. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and multiple single-unit activity from two conscious macaque monkeys performing a precision grip task. EMG activity was also recorded from the second animal.(More)
The retinocollicular projection in the marsupial mammal the wallaby Macropus eugenii, has been investigated anatomically to determine the order in the developing projection and electrophysiologically to determine the time of onset of synaptic transmission by recording evoked potentials in the colliculus in response to stimulation of the optic nerve. There(More)
1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat striatal cholinergic interneurones in slices of brain tissue in vitro. In the absence of ATP in the electrode solution, these neurones were found to gradually hyperpolarize through the induction of an outward current at -60 mV. This outward current and the resultant hyperpolarization were blocked by(More)
Cholinergic neurons were identified in rat striatal slices by their size, membrane properties, sensitivity to the NK(1) receptor agonist (Sar(9), Met(O(2))(11)) Substance P, and expression of choline acetyltransferase mRNA. A(1) receptor mRNA was detected in 60% of the neurons analysed, and A(2A) receptor mRNA in 67% (n=15). The A(1) receptor agonist(More)
The expression of 34 transmitter-related genes has been examined in the cholinergic neurones of rat striatal brain slices, with the aim of correlating gene expression with functional activity. The mRNAs encoding types I, II/IIA, and III alpha subunits of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels were detected, suggesting the presence of these three types of(More)