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Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background generates a curl pattern in the observed polarization. This "B-mode" signal provides a measure of the projected mass distribution over the entire observable Universe and also acts as a contaminant for the measurement of primordial gravity-wave signals. In this Letter we present the first detection of(More)
While determining reference values for porphyrins in feces as measured by liquid chromatography, we observed strong fluctuations in fecal porphyrin contents. To explain these fluctuations, we selectively suppressed the intestinal flora of healthy persons. Suppression of aerobic flora had no effect on fecal porphyrin excretions, whereas suppression of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the long-term efficacy of endoscopically implanting polydimethylsiloxane (PDS, Macroplastique, Uroplasty BV, Geleen, the Netherlands) for treating vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the records of 195 children treated with PDS over the past 10 years in two European centres(More)
A GC-MS determination of urea in serum or spent dialysate is described, using 13C15N2-labelled urea and assaying the area ratio of labelled to natural urea by mass fragmentographic monitoring of fragments m/e 153 and 156, after its eventual conversion into the trimethylsilylether-derivative of 2-hydroxypyrimidine. The procedure can be successfully applied(More)
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to analyze urinary calculus (renal stone) constituents. However, interpretation of IR spectra for quantifying urinary calculus constituents in mixtures is difficult, requiring expert knowledge by trained technicians. In our laboratory IR spectra of unknown calculi are compared with references spectra in a computerized(More)
In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we(More)
In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters(More)
A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a(More)