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Glucansucrases are extracellular enzymes that synthesize a wide variety of α-glucan polymers and oligosaccharides, such as dextran. These carbohydrates have found numerous applications in food and health industries, and can be used as pure compounds or even be produced in situ by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) lactic acid bacteria in food applications.(More)
The human cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HCgp-39 or YKL40) is expressed by synovial cells and macrophages during inflammation. Its precise physiological role is unknown. However, it has been proposed that HCgp-39 acts as an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis, and high expression levels have been associated with cancer development. HCgp-39 shares high sequence(More)
Branching enzyme (EC; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of α1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus family GH57-type GBE and report its biochemical properties and(More)
Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the insertion of molecular oxygen into polyphenolic flavonols. Dioxygenation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes has been studied extensively, but dioxygenases employing other metal cofactors are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure of quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase at 1.6(More)
To improve enzymatic activity of Bacillus pumilus lipases, DNA shuffling was applied to two lipase genes from local B. pumilus isolates. Using a high-throughput activity assay, the mutant with highest activity was selected. This chimeric mutant (L3-3), carrying two crossover positions and three point mutations, has a specific activity 6.4 and 8.2 times(More)
Flavodoxin II from Azotobacter vinelandii is a "long-chain" flavodoxin and has one of the lowest E1 midpoint potentials found within the flavodoxin family. To better understand the relationship between structural features and redox potentials, the oxidized form of the C69A mutant of this flavodoxin was crystallized and its three-dimensional structure(More)
The bacterial rpoN operon codes for sigma 54, which is the key sigma factor that, under nitrogen starvation conditions, activates the transcription of genes needed to assimilate ammonia and glutamate. The rpoN operon contains several other open reading frames that are cotranscribed with sigma 54. The product of one of these, the 17.9 kDa protein IIANtr, is(More)
BACKGROUND . The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) mediates the energy-driven uptake of carbohydrates and their concomitant phosphorylation. In addition, the PTS is intimately involved in the regulation of a variety of metabolic and transcriptional processes in the bacterium. The multiprotein PTS consists of a membrane(More)
BACKGROUND The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) catalyses the cellular uptake and subsequent phosphorylation of carbohydrates. Moreover, the PTS plays a crucial role in the global regulation of various metabolic pathways. The PTS consists of two general proteins, enzyme I and the histidine-containing protein (HPr), and(More)
Family 70 glycoside hydrolase glucansucrase enzymes exclusively occur in lactic acid bacteria and synthesize a wide range of α-d-glucan (abbreviated as α-glucan) oligo- and polysaccharides. Of the 47 characterized GH70 enzymes, 46 use sucrose as glucose donor. A single GH70 enzyme was recently found to be inactive with sucrose and to utilize(More)