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TCP flows start with an initial congestion window of at most four segments or approximately 4KB of data. Because most Web transactions are short-lived, the initial congestion window is a critical TCP parameter in determining how quickly flows can finish. While the global network access speeds increased dramatically on average in the past decade, the(More)
As IPv4 address space approaches exhaustion, large networks are deploying IPv6 or preparing for deployment. However, there is little data available about the quantity and quality of IPv6 connectivity. We describe a methodology to measure IPv6 adoption from the perspective of a Web site operator and to evaluate the impact that adding IPv6 to a Web site will(More)
We describe an on-line service, and its underlying methodology, designed to extract BGP peerings from the Internet Routing Registry. Both the method and the service are based on: a consistency manager for integrating information across different registries, an RPSL analyzer that extracts peering specifications from RPSL objects, and a peering classifier(More)
Interdomain routes change over time, and it is impressive to observe up to which extent. Routes may change many times in the same day and sometimes in the same hour or minute. Such changes are caused by several types of events, e.g., a routing policy variation in an ISP, a router reboot, or a link fault. In this paper we do a step towards the identification(More)
The global Internet routing infrastructure is a large scale distributed system where routing changes occur all the time. While prior work on Internet routing dynamics examined routing stability to individual destinations, in this paper we study the routing stability of the Internet as a whole. We use the observed changes in the number of routes over each(More)
Recent works on modeling the Internet topology [8, 9]have highlighted how the complexity of relationships between Autonomous Systems (ASes) can not be oversimpli¿ed without sacri¿cing accuracy in capturing route selection. Such a shortcoming can mislead the understanding,hence the prediction, of the BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) behavior. In particular,(More)
Work partially supported by European Commission – Fet Open project DELIS – Dynamically Evolving Large Scale Information Systems – Contract no 001907 and by MIUR under Project " MAINSTREAM: Algoritmi per strutture informative di grandi dimensioni e data streams " , MIUR Programmi di ricerca di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale. ABSTRACT Interdomain routes change(More)
The Internet can be represented as a graph of Autonomous Systems (ASes). Each AS dynamically selects the (AS-)paths to reach destinations on the Inter-net, according to inter-AS customer-provider relationships. Such relationships define a hierarchy of all the ASes. The Internet is renowned to be highly dynamic as AS-paths to any destination may frequently(More)
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