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Inflammatory reactions occur in the brain in various CNS diseases, including autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and epileptic disorders. Proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines and related molecules have been described in CNS and plasma, in experimental models of seizures and in clinical cases of epilepsy. Inflammation involves both the innate and the(More)
Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare but severe immune-mediated brain disorder leading to unilateral hemispheric atrophy, associated progressive neurological dysfunction and intractable seizures. Recent data on the pathogenesis of the disease, its clinical and paraclinical presentation, and therapeutic approaches are summarized. Based on these data, we(More)
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurological manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder and has unknown etiology. We used exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC and their unaffected parents to identify de novo nonsynonymous(More)
To identify the major risk factors for the increased incidence of congenital malformations in offspring of mothers being treated for epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy and, to determine the relative teratogenic risk of AEDs, we prospectively analyzed 983 offspring born in Japan, Italy, and Canada. The incidence of congenital(More)
The "band heterotopia" or "double cortex" is a brain anomaly that is presumed to result from a premature arrest of neuronal migration. Patients with this anomaly are reported to have a variable clinical course that has been, heretofore, unpredictable. The clinical records and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of 27 patients with band heterotopia were(More)
OBJECTIVES SCN1A mutations were recently reported in several patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI). The authors analyzed SCN1A mutations in 93 patients with SMEI and made genotype-phenotype correlation to clarify the role of this gene in the etiology of SMEI. METHODS All patients fulfilled the criteria for SMEI. The authors analyzed(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious manifestations of epilepsy. Systemic inflammation and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are etiologic cofactors in the pathogenesis of pilocarpine SE while acute osmotic disruption of the BBB is sufficient to elicit seizures. Whether an inflammatory-vascular-BBB mechanism could apply to the(More)
PURPOSE It is generally accepted that blood-brain barrier (BBB) failure occurs as a result of CNS diseases, including epilepsy. However, evidences also suggest that BBB failure may be an etiological factor contributing to the development of seizures. METHODS We monitored the onset of seizures in patients undergoing osmotic disruption of BBB (BBBD)(More)
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare condition characterized by drug-resistant seizures, recurrent status epilepticus and progressive lateralized neurological deterioration. There is evidence of autoimmune involvement in the pathogenesis. We investigated the presence of anti-GluR3 antibodies against peptides A and B in patients with RE (n=11), partial(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the clinical and EEG features of the epileptic syndromes occurring in adult and infantile mitochondrial encephalopathies (ME). METHODS Thirty-one patients with recurrent and apparently unprovoked seizures associated with primary ME were included in the study. Diagnosis of ME was based on the recognition of a morphologic, biochemical,(More)