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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to translocate various substrates across cellular membranes. Several members of subfamily A of mammalian ABC transporters are associated with severe health disorders, but their unusual complexity and large size have so far precluded structural characterization. ABCA4 is localized to the discs of vertebrate(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of signal transduction, neurotransmission, ion channel regulation, and other cellular events. GPCRs are activated by diverse stimuli, including light, enzymatic processing of their N-termini, and binding of proteins, peptides, or small molecules such as neurotransmitters. GPCR dysfunction caused by(More)
Levels of many hydrophobic cellular substances are tightly regulated because of their potential cytotoxicity. These compounds tend to self-aggregate in cytoplasmic storage depots termed lipid droplets/bodies that have well defined structures that contain additional components, including cholesterol and various proteins. Hydrophobic substances in these(More)
Neuronal Ca(2+) sensors (NCS) are high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca(2+) concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of(More)
We have demonstrated that amino acids E (323), Y (324), E (330), and V (331) from the factor Va heavy chain are required for the interaction of the cofactor with factor Xa and optimum rates of prothrombin cleavage. We have also shown that amino acid region 332-336 contains residues that are important for cofactor function. Using overlapping peptides, we(More)
Opsins comprise the protein component of light sensitive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the retina of the eye that are responsible for the transduction of light into a biochemical signal. Here, we used hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to map conformational changes in green cone opsin upon light activation. We(More)
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein complexes that comprise the ends of linear chromosomes. Human telomeres end in a short, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang that is recognized and bound by two telomere proteins, POT1 and TPP1. Whereas POT1 binds directly to telomere ssDNA, its interaction with TPP1 is essential for localization of POT1 to the(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice(More)
The prothrombinase complex catalyzes the activation of prothrombin to alpha-thrombin. We have repetitively shown that amino acid region (695)DYDY(698) from the COOH terminus of the heavy chain of factor Va regulates the rate of cleavage of prothrombin at Arg(271) by prothrombinase. We have also recently demonstrated that amino acid region (334)DY(335) is(More)
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