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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to translocate various substrates across cellular membranes. Several members of subfamily A of mammalian ABC transporters are associated with severe health disorders, but their unusual complexity and large size have so far precluded structural characterization. ABCA4 is localized to the discs of vertebrate(More)
A large body of evidence for G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization has accumulated over the past 2 decades. The smallest of these oligomers in vivo most likely is a dimer that buries 1000-Å(2) intramolecular surfaces and on stimulation forms a complex with heterotrimeric G protein in 2:1 stoichiometry. However, it is unclear whether each of the(More)
Factor Va is the critical cofactor for prothrombinase assembly required for timely and efficient prothrombin activation. In the absence of a complete crystal structure for the cofactor, Pellequer et al. [(2000) Thromb. Haemostasis 84, 849-857] proposed an incomplete homology model of factor Va (it lacks 46 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the heavy(More)
Photoactivation of rhodopsin (Rho), a G protein-coupled receptor, causes conformational changes that provide a specific binding site for the rod G protein, G(t). In this work we employed structural mass spectrometry techniques to elucidate the structural changes accompanying transition of ground state Rho to photoactivated Rho (Rho(∗)) and in the pentameric(More)
Alpha-thrombin has two separate electropositive binding exosites (anion binding exosite I, ABE-I and anion binding exosite II, ABE-II) that are involved in substrate tethering necessary for efficient catalysis. Alpha-thrombin catalyzes the activation of factor V and factor VIII following discrete proteolytic cleavages. Requirement for both anion binding(More)
Incorporation of factor (F) Va into prothrombinase directs prothrombin activation by FXa through the meizothrombin pathway, characterized by initial cleavage at Arg(320). We have shown that a pentapeptide with the sequence DYDYQ specifically inhibits this pathway. It has been also established that Hir(54-65)(SO(3)(-)) is a specific inhibitor of(More)
We have demonstrated that amino acids E (323), Y (324), E (330), and V (331) from the factor Va heavy chain are required for the interaction of the cofactor with factor Xa and optimum rates of prothrombin cleavage. We have also shown that amino acid region 332-336 contains residues that are important for cofactor function. Using overlapping peptides, we(More)
Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate receptor desensitization. In addition to the canonical phosphoacceptor site of the kinase domain, activated receptors bind to a distinct docking site that confers higher affinity and activates GRKs allosterically. Recent mutagenesis and(More)
Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can cause genetic syndromes such as leprechaunism that are associated with extreme insulin resistance. We have investigated a patient with leprechaunism born of a consanguineous marriage. All 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene were screened for mutations using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Thereafter, the(More)