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Chemotherapeutics are the most effective treatment for metastatic tumours. However, the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs--a trait known as multidrug resistance--remains a significant impediment to successful chemotherapy. Three decades of multidrug-resistance research have identified a myriad of ways in which(More)
Drug resistance remains one of the primary causes of suboptimal outcomes in cancer therapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that contribute to drug resistance via ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene, is an ABC transporter normally involved in the excretion of toxins(More)
Reports of multiple distinct mitoxantrone-resistant sublines without overexpression of P-glycoprotein or the multidrug-resistance associated protein have raised the possibility of the existence of another major transporter conferring drug resistance. In the present study, a cDNA library from mitoxantrone-resistant S1-M1-80 human colon carcinoma cells was(More)
Since 1990, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has screened more than 60,000 compounds against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. The 50-percent growth-inhibitory concentration (GI50) for any single cell line is simply an index of cytotoxicity or cytostasis, but the patterns of 60 such GI50 values encode unexpectedly rich, detailed information on(More)
Acquired resistance to paclitaxel can be mediated by P-glycoprotein or by alterations involving tubulin. We report two paclitaxel-resistant sublines derived from 1A9 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Single-step paclitaxel selection with verapamil yielded two clones that are resistant to paclitaxel and collaterally sensitive to vinblastine. The resistant(More)
Recent studies have shown that paclitaxel leads to activation of Raf-1 kinase and have suggested that this activation is essential for bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that, in addition to paclitaxel, other agents that interact with tubulin and microtubules also induce Raf-1/bcl-2 phosphorylation, whereas(More)
The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of(More)
The essential cellular functions associated with microtubules have led to a wide use of microtubule-interfering agents in cancer chemotherapy with promising results. Although the most well studied action of microtubule-interfering agents is an arrest of cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, other effects may also exist. We have observed that paclitaxel(More)
By preventing deacetylation of histones, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) transcriptionally induce p21. Here we show that the HDIs sodium butyrate (Bu), trichostatin A (TSA) and depsipeptide (FR901228) all induced p21, but only TSA and FR901228 caused mitotic arrest (in addition to arrest in G1 and G2). The ability to cause mitotic arrest correlated(More)
The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer(More)