Titia de Lange

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Added by telomerase, arrays of TTAGGG repeats specify the ends of human chromosomes. A complex formed by six telomere-specific proteins associates with this sequence and protects chromosome ends. By analogy to other chromosomal protein complexes such as condensin and cohesin, I will refer to this complex as shelterin. Three shelterin subunits, TRF1, TRF2,(More)
Tankyrase, a protein with homology to ankyrins and to the catalytic domain of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), was identified and localized to human telomeres. Tankyrase binds to the telomeric protein TRF1 (telomeric repeat binding factor-1), a negative regulator of telomere length maintenance. Like ankyrins, tankyrase contains 24(More)
The genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles are usually circular as are most plasmids and viral genomes. In contrast, the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes are organized on linear chromosomes, which require mechanisms to protect and replicate DNA ends. Eukaryotes navigate these problems with the advent of telomeres, protective nucleoprotein complexes(More)
Although broken chromosomes can induce apoptosis, natural chromosome ends (telomeres) do not trigger this response. It is shown that this suppression of apoptosis involves the telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2). Inhibition of TRF2 resulted in apoptosis in a subset of mammalian cell types. The response was mediated by p53 and the ATM (ataxia(More)
Double-strand breaks activate the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, which promotes the accumulation of DNA damage factors in the chromatin surrounding the break. The functional significance of the resulting DNA damage foci is poorly understood. Here we show that 53BP1 (also known as TRP53BP1), a component of DNA damage foci, changes the dynamic(More)
Human telomeres are composed of long arrays of TTAGGG repeats that form a nucleoprotein complex required for the protection and replication of chromosome ends. One component of human telomeres is the TTAGGG repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1), a ubiquitously expressed protein, related to the protooncogene Myb, that is present at telomeres throughout the cell(More)
The choice between double-strand break (DSB) repair by either homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is tightly regulated. Defects in this regulation can induce genome instability and cancer. 53BP1 is critical for the control of DSB repair, promoting NHEJ, and inhibiting the 5' end resection needed for HDR. Using dysfunctional(More)
Telomere length in human cells is controlled by a homeostasis mechanism that involves telomerase and the negative regulator of telomere length, TRF1 (TTAGGG repeat binding factor 1). Here we report that TRF2, a TRF1-related protein previously implicated in protection of chromosome ends, is a second negative regulator of telomere length. Overexpression of(More)
Human telomere length is controlled by a negative feedback loop based on the binding of TRF1 to double-stranded telomeric DNA. The TRF1 complex recruits POT1, a single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein necessary for cis-inhibition of telomerase. By mass spectrometry, we have identified a new telomeric protein, which we have named POT1-interacting(More)
Telomeres are multifunctional elements that shield chromosome ends from degradation and end-to-end fusions, prevent activation of DNA damage checkpoints, and modulate the maintenance of telomeric DNA by telomerase. A major protein component of human telomeres has been identified and cloned. This factor, TRF, contains one Myb-type DNA-binding repeat and an(More)