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Pentameric ligand gated ion-channels, or Cys-loop receptors, mediate rapid chemical transmission of signals. This superfamily of allosteric transmembrane proteins includes the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), serotonin 5-HT3, gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABAA and GABAC) and glycine receptors. Biochemical and electrophysiological information on the prototypic(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypes for the pharmaceutically important family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Here we present atomic resolution structures of nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to AChBP, a water-soluble homolog of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic receptors and their family members, GABAA, GABAC, 5HT3 serotonin,(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent signaling during the DNA damage response (DDR) to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is initiated by two E3 ligases, RNF8 and RNF168, targeting histone H2A and H2AX. RNF8 is the first ligase recruited to the damage site, and RNF168 follows RNF8-dependent ubiquitination. This suggests that RNF8 initiates H2A/H2AX ubiquitination with K63-linked(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions that trigger non-proteolytic ubiquitylation of adjacent chromatin areas to generate binding sites for DNA repair factors. This depends on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 (refs 1-6), and UBC13 (also known as UBE2N), an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that(More)
Posttranslational modification of proteins by the small molecule ubiquitin is a key regulatory event, and the enzymes catalyzing these modifications have been the focus of many studies. Deubiquitinating enzymes, which mediate the removal and processing of ubiquitin, may be functionally as important but are less well understood. Here, we present an inventory(More)
There is accumulating evidence that glial cells actively modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. We identified a glia-derived soluble acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), which is a naturally occurring analogue of the ligand-binding domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Like the nAChRs, it assembles into a homopentamer with(More)
Conotoxins (Ctx) form a large family of peptide toxins from cone snail venoms that act on a broad spectrum of ion channels and receptors. The subgroup alpha-Ctx specifically and selectively binds to subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are targets for treatment of several neurological disorders. Here we present the structure at a(More)
The 2.1-A resolution crystal structure of wild-type green fluorescent protein and comparison of it with the recently determined structure of the Ser-65 --> Thr (S65T) mutant explains the dual wavelength absorption and photoisomerization properties of the wild-type protein. The two absorption maxima are caused by a change in the ionization state of the(More)
DNA mismatch repair ensures genomic integrity on DNA replication. Recognition of a DNA mismatch by a dimeric MutS protein initiates a cascade of reactions and results in repair of the newly synthesized strand; however, details of the molecular mechanism remain controversial. Here we present the crystal structure at 2.2 A of MutS from Escherichia coli bound(More)
Automatic iterative model (re-)building, as implemented in ARP/wARP and its new control system flex-wARP, is particularly well suited to follow structure solution by molecular replacement. More than 100 molecular-replacement solutions automatically solved by the BALBES software were submitted to three standard protocols in flex-wARP and the results were(More)