Learn More
Several lines of evidence implicate the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the etiology and pathophysiology of major depression. To explore the role of IL-1 in chronic stress-induced depression and some of its underlying biological mechanisms, we used the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Mice subjected to CMS for 5 weeks(More)
The limited success in understanding the pathophysiology of major depression may result from excessive focus on the dysfunctioning of neurons, as compared with other types of brain cells. Therefore, we examined the role of dynamic alterations in microglia activation status in the development of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like(More)
Ample research demonstrates that pathophysiological levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) produces detrimental effects on memory functioning. However, recent evidence suggests that IL-1 may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal-dependent memory. To substantiate the physiological role of IL-1 in learning(More)
Neurons, astrocytes, and blood vessels are organized in functional "neurovascular units" in which the vasculature can impact neuronal activity and, in turn, dynamically adjust to its change. Here we explored different mechanisms by which VEGF, a pleiotropic factor known to possess multiple activities vis-à-vis blood vessels and neurons, may affect adult(More)
Recent studies indicate that astrocytes play an integral role in neural and synaptic functioning. To examine the implications of these findings for neurobehavioral plasticity we investigated the involvement of astrocytes in memory and long-term potentiation (LTP), using a mouse model of impaired learning and synaptic plasticity caused by genetic deletion of(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) within the brain is critically involved in mediating the memory impairment induced by acute inflammatory challenges and psychological stress. However, the role of IL-1 in memory impairment and suppressed neurogenesis induced by chronic stress exposure has not been investigated before now. We report here that(More)
Environmental enrichment (EE) was found to facilitate memory functioning and neural plasticity in normal and neurologically impaired animals. However, the ability of this manipulation to rescue memory and its biological substrate in animals with specific genetically based deficits in these functions has not been extensively studied. In the present study, we(More)
Recent studies demonstrate that microglia play an important role in cognitive and neuroplasticity processes, at least partly via microglial CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling. Furthermore, microglia are responsive to environmental enrichment (EE), which modulates learning, memory and neurogenesis. In the present study we examined the role of microglial(More)
Exposure to stressful stimuli is often accompanied by reduced pain sensitivity, termed "stress-induced analgesia" (SIA). In the present study, the hypothesis that interleukin-1 (IL-1) may play a modulatory role in SIA was examined. Two genetic mouse models impaired in IL-1-signaling and their wild-type (WT) controls were employed. Another group of C57 mice(More)