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Chloroplasts are essential organelles, in which genes have widely been used in the phylogenetic analysis of green plants. Here, we took advantage of the breadth of plastid genomes (cpDNAs) sequenced species to investigate their dynamic changes. Our study showed that gene rearrangements occurred more frequently in the cpDNAs of green algae than in land(More)
Comparative genomics is the cornerstone of identification of gene functions. The immense number of living organisms precludes experimental identification of functions except in a handful of model organisms. The bacterial domain is split into large branches, among which the Firmicutes occupy a considerable space. Bacillus subtilis has been the model of(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of tumor mortality among males in western societies. In China, the diagnostic and fatality rate of PCa is increasing yearly. METHODS To characterize underlying molecular mechanisms, the microRNA (miRNA) profile of high-grade PCa, low-grade PCa, and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were compared(More)
MicroRNAs act at the post-transcriptional level and guide Argonaute proteins to cleave their corresponding target transcripts. However, little attention has been paid to arm selection in miRNA precursors. In this study, small RNA high-throughput sequencing data from 29 different rice libraries were pooled to investigate tissue- and abiotic stress-specific(More)
Small RNAs represented by microRNA (miRNA) plays important roles in plant development and responds to biotic and abiotic stresses. Previous studies have placed special emphasis on gene-repression mediated by miRNA. In this work, the DNA methylation pattern of microRNA genes (MIRs) was interrogated. Full-length cDNA and EST were used to confirm the entity of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are thought to play critical roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. The small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus Fallén), one of the most destructive agricultural pests, causes great damage to crops including rice,(More)
Many studies have demonstrated that some genes (e.g. APC, BRAF, KRAS, PTEN, TP53) are frequently mutated in cancer, however, underlying mechanism that contributes to their high mutation frequency remains unclear. Here we used Apriori algorithm to find the frequent mutational gene sets (FMGSs) from 4,904 tumors across 11 cancer types as part of the TCGA(More)
TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are characterized by their small size, have been discovered in all investigated vascular plants and even in animals. Here, we identified a highly conservative TRIM family referred to as Wukong elements in the maize genome. The Wukong family shows a distinct pattern of tandem arrangement in the(More)
miRNA is increasingly being recognized as a key regulator of metabolism in animals. A wealth of evidence has suggested that miRNA mainly binds 3' UTR of mRNA and modulates the cell activities via repressing the mRNA translation. However, as the translation initiates at 5' UTR, cis elements like upstream open reading frame (uORF) resided in 5' UTR may also(More)
The expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is thought to be more cell-type specific than the expression of protein-coding genes. However, the expression profile of individual cells regarding lncRNA remains to be elucidated. Here, we comprehensively investigated the pattern of lncRNA expression across five glioblastoma tumors (414 cells) and two cell(More)
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