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The C terminus of endomorphin-2 (EM-2) analogues (Tyr-Pro-Phe-NH-X) was modified with aromatic, heteroaromatic, or aliphatic groups (X = phenethyl,benzyl, phenyl, naphthyl, pyridyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, tert-butyl, cyclohexyl, or adamantyl; 3-18) to study their effect on opioid activity. Only 9 (1-naphthyl), 11 (5-quinolyl), 16 (cyclohexyl), and 18(More)
[N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine(More)
N-Allylation (-CH(2)-CHCH(2)) of [Dmt(1)]endomorphins yielded the following: (i) [N-allyl-Dmt(1)]endomorphin-2 (Dmt=2',6'-dimethyl-l-tyrosine) (12) and [N-allyl-Dmt(1)]endomorphin-1 (15) (K(i)mu=0.45 and 0.26nM, respectively) became mu-antagonists (pA(2)=8.59 and 8.18, respectively) with weak delta-antagonism (pA(2)=6.32 and 7.32, respectively); (ii)(More)
The potent opioid [Dmt1]endomorphin-2 (Dmt-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) differentiated between the opioid receptor subtypes responsible for the antinociception elicited by endomorphin-2 in mice. Antinociception, induced by the intracerebroventricular administration of [Dmt1]endomorphin-2 and inhibited by various opioid receptor antagonists [naloxone, naltrindole,(More)
Six analogues of tyrosine, which contained alkyl groups at positions 2', 3', and 6', either singly or in combination on the tyramine ring, were investigated for their effect on the opioid activity of [Xaa(1)]endomorphin-2 (EM-2). The opioid analogues displayed the following characteristics: (i) high mu-opioid receptor affinity [K(i)(mu) = 0.063-2.29 nM](More)
A series of dimeric Dmt-Tic (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) analogues (8-14, 18-22) were covalently linked through diaminoalkane and symmetric or asymmetric 3,6-diaminoalkyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone moieties. All the compounds exhibited high affinity for both delta-opioid receptors [Ki(delta) = 0.06-1.53 nM] and mu-opioid(More)
Endomorphin-2 (H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) and [Dmt1]EM-2 (Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyl-l-tyrosine) analogues, containing alkylated Phe3 derivatives, 2'-monomethyl (2, 2'), 3',5'- and 2',6'-dimethyl (3, 3', and 4', respectively), 2',4',6'-trimethyl (6, 6'), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyl (7, 7'), and 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyl (8, 8') groups or Dmt (5, 5'), had the following(More)
Six phenylalanine analogues containing 2'-methyl-, 2',6'-dimethyl-, 2'-ethyl-6'-methyl-, 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyl-, 2',4',6'-trimethyl-, and 3',5'-dimethyl-L-phenylalanine were synthesized enantioselectively through asymmetric hydrogenation of acetamidoacrylate derivatives. Enzymatic digestion and X-ray analysis supported the L-configuration of the(More)
[Dmt1]Endomorphin-1 is a novel analogue of the potent mu-opioid agonist endomorphin-1. Given the physiological role of endomorphin-1 in vivo, this compound was investigated to determine if the antinociception occurred through systemic, supraspinal or in a combination of both neuronal pathways. This compound exhibited a potent dose-dependent effect(More)
Analogues of endomorphin-2 (EM-2: Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2)) (1) were designed to examine the importance of each residue on mu-opioid receptor interaction. Replacement of Tyr(1) by 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) (9-12) exerted profound effects: [Dmt(1)]EM-2 (9) elevated mu-opioid affinity 4.6-fold (K(i mu=0.15 nM) yet selectivity fell 330-fold as(More)