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Thermal treatments for tissue ablation rely upon the heating of cells past a threshold beyond which the cells are considered destroyed, denatured, or killed. In this article, a novel three-state model for cell death is proposed where there exists a vulnerable state positioned between the alive and dead states used in a number of existing cell death models.(More)
The treatment of cancerous tumours in the liver remains clinically challenging, despite the wide range of treatment possibilities, including radio-frequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound and resection, which are currently available. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. For non- or minimally invasive modalities, such as RFA,(More)
Resting fluctuations in arterial CO2 (a cerebral vasodilator) are believed to be an important source of low-frequency blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. In this study we focus on the two commonly used resting-states in functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, eyes open and eyes closed, and quantify the degree to which(More)
The effect of spontaneous beat-to-beat mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations and breath-to-breath end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and end-tidal oxygen (PETO2) fluctuations on beat-to-beat cerebral bloodflow velocity (CBFV) variations is studied using a multiple coherence function. Multiple coherence is a measure of the extent to which the(More)
The dynamic relationship between beat-to-beat mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) variations have been intensively studied. The experimentally observed low coherence in the low-frequency band has previously indicated that the assumptions of linearity and/or stationarity, the preconditions of the linear(More)
Although the effects of ageing on cardiovascular control and particularly the response to orthostatic stress have been the subject of many studies, the interaction between the cardiovascular and cerebral regulation mechanisms is still not fully understood. Wavelet cross-correlation is used here to assess the coupling and synchronization between(More)
Thermal ablation of a tumour in the liver with Radio Frequency energy can be accomplished by using a probe inserted into the tissue under the guidance of medical imaging. The extent of ablation can be significantly affected by heat loss due to the high blood perfusion in the liver, especially when the tumour is located close to large vessels. A mathematical(More)
Staining and scanning of tissue samples for microscopic examination is fraught with undesirable color variations arising from differences in raw materials and manufacturing techniques of stain vendors, staining protocols of labs, and color responses of digital scanners. When comparing tissue samples, color normalization and stain separation of the tissue(More)