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In response to environmental and dietary cues, the C. elegans orphan nuclear receptor, DAF-12, regulates dauer diapause, reproductive development, fat metabolism, and life span. Despite strong evidence for hormonal control, the identification of the DAF-12 ligand has remained elusive. In this work, we identified two distinct 3-keto-cholestenoic acid(More)
The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing(More)
Potential cognitive and motor effects from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) were examined in the presence and absence of a polymorphism (Val66Met) in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A group of 194 male dentists (DDs) and 233 female dental assistants (DAs) were occupationally exposed to mercury and had no history of kidney or nervous system(More)
TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we(More)
Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex diseases have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) studies. However, few of these SNPs have explicit biological functions. Recent studies indicated that the SNPs within the 3’UTR regions of susceptibility genes could(More)
The TAZ transcription co-activator promotes cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. TAZ is inhibited by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, which promotes TAZ cytoplasmic localization by phosphorylation. We report here that TAZ protein stability is controlled by a phosphodegron recognized by the F-box protein β-TrCP and ubiquitylated by(More)
We previously described a polymorphism in exon 4 of the gene encoding the heme biosynthetic pathway enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX4), which significantly modifies the effect of mercury exposure on urinary porphyrin excretion in humans. Here, we examined potential consequences of this polymorphism ("CPOX4") on performance within neurobehavioral(More)
The liver performs a number of essential functions for life. The development of such a complex organ relies on finely regulated gene expression profiles which change over time in the development and determine the phenotype and function of the liver. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to study the gene expression and transcription regulation at(More)
The P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R), one of eight members of the P2YR family expressed in humans, is one of the most prominent clinical drug targets for inhibition of platelet aggregation. Although mutagenesis and modelling studies of the P2Y12R provided useful insights into ligand binding, the agonist and antagonist recognition and function at the P2Y12R remain(More)
Although widely prescribed for their potent antiinflammatory actions, glucocorticoid drugs (e.g., dexamethasone) cause undesirable side effects that are features of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes. Liver x receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that respond to cholesterol metabolites and(More)